T-Space Collection:
http://hdl.handle.net/1807/24994
2014-04-24T11:17:15ZA Newton-Krylov Approach to Aerodynamic Shape Optimization in Three Dimensions
http://hdl.handle.net/1807/24811
Title: A Newton-Krylov Approach to Aerodynamic Shape Optimization in Three Dimensions
Authors: Leung, Timothy
Abstract: A Newton-Krylov algorithm is presented for aerodynamic shape optimization in three dimensions using the Euler equations. An inexact-Newton method is used in the flow solver, a discrete-adjoint method to compute the gradient, and the quasi-Newton optimizer to find the optimum. A Krylov subspace method with approximate-Schur preconditioning is used to solve both the flow equation and the adjoint equation. Basis spline surfaces are used to parameterize the geometry, and a fast algebraic algorithm is used for grid movement. Accurate discrete-adjoint gradients can be obtained in approximately one-fourth the time required for a converged flow solution. Single- and multi-point lift-constrained drag minimization optimization cases are presented for wing design at transonic speeds. In all cases, the optimizer is able to efficiently decrease the objective function and gradient for problems with hundreds of design variables.2010-08-30T18:35:55ZSoot Formation in Non-premixed Laminar Flames at Subcritical and Supercritical Pressures
http://hdl.handle.net/1807/24775
Title: Soot Formation in Non-premixed Laminar Flames at Subcritical and Supercritical Pressures
Authors: Joo, Hyun Il
Abstract: An experimental study was conducted using axisymmetric co-flow laminar diffusion flames of methane-air, methane-oxygen and ethylene-air to examine the effect of pressure on soot formation and the structure of the temperature field. A liquid fuel burner was designed and built to observe the sooting behavior of methanol-air and n-heptane-air laminar diffusion flames at elevated pressures up to 50 atm. A non-intrusive, line-of-sight spectral soot emission (SSE) diagnostic technique was used to determine the temperature and the soot volume fraction of methane-air flames up to 60 atm, methane-oxygen flames up to 90 atm and ethylene-air flames up to 35 atm. The physical flame structure of the methane-air and methane-oxygen diffusion flames were characterized over the pressure range of 10 to 100 atm and up to 35 atm for ethylene-air flames. The flame height, marked by the visible soot radiation emission, remained relatively constant for methane-air and ethylene-air flames over their respected pressure ranges, while the visible flame height for the methane-oxygen flames was reduced by over 50 % between 10 and 100 atm. During methane-air experiments, observations of anomalous occurrence of liquid material formation at 60 atm and above were recorded. The maximum conversion of the carbon in the fuel to soot exhibited a strong power-law dependence on pressure. At pressures 10 to 30 atm, the pressure exponent is approximately 0.73 for methane-air flames. At higher pressures, between 30 and 60 atm, the pressure exponent is approximately 0.33. The maximum fuel carbon conversion to soot is 12.6 % at 60 atm. For methane-oxygen flames, the pressure exponent is approximately 1.2 for pressures between 10 and 40 atm. At pressures between 50 and 70 atm, the pressure exponent is about -3.8 and approximately -12 for 70 to 90 atm. The maximum fuel carbon conversion to soot is 2 % at 40 atm. For ethylene-air flames, the pressure exponent is approximately 1.4 between 10 and 30 atm. The maximum carbon conversion to soot is approximately 6.5 % at 30 atm and remained constant at higher pressures.2010-08-13T15:17:31ZAccurate Residual-distribution Schemes for Accelerated Parallel Architectures
http://hdl.handle.net/1807/24762
Title: Accurate Residual-distribution Schemes for Accelerated Parallel Architectures
Authors: Guzik, Stephen Michael Jan
Abstract: Residual-distribution methods offer several potential benefits over classical methods, such as a means of applying upwinding in a multi-dimensional manner and a multi-dimensional positivity property. While it is apparent that residual-distribution methods also offer higher accuracy than finite-volume methods on similar meshes, few studies have directly compared the performance of the two approaches in a systematic and quantitative manner. In this study, comparisons between residual distribution and finite volume are made for steady-state smooth and discontinuous flows of gas dynamics, governed by hyperbolic conservation laws, to illustrate the strengths and deficiencies of the residual-distribution method. Deficiencies which reduce the accuracy are analyzed and a new nonlinear scheme is proposed that closely reproduces or surpasses the accuracy of the best linear residual-distribution scheme. The accuracy is further improved by extending the scheme to fourth order using established finite-element techniques. Finally, the compact stencil, arithmetic workload, and data parallelism of the fourth-order residual-distribution scheme are exploited to accelerate parallel computations on an architecture consisting of both CPU cores and a graphics processing unit. Numerical experiments are used to assess the gains to efficiency and possible monetary savings that may be provided by accelerated architectures.2010-08-12T20:23:04ZQuantification of Chemical Erosion in the Divertor of the DIII-D Tokamak
http://hdl.handle.net/1807/24318
Title: Quantification of Chemical Erosion in the Divertor of the DIII-D Tokamak
Authors: McLean, Adam Gordon
Abstract: The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is currently designed to use graphite targets in the divertor for power handling and impurity control. Understanding and quantifying chemical sputtering is therefore key to the success of fusion as a clean energy source. The principal goal of this thesis is to design and carry out experiments, then analyze and interpret the results in order to elucidate the role of chemical sputtering in carbon sources in the DIII-D tokamak.
A self-contained gas puff system has been designed, constructed, and employed for in-situ study of chemical erosion. The porous plug injector (PPI) releases methane through a porous graphite surface into the divertor plasma at a precisely calibrated rate, minimizing perturbation to local plasma while replicating the immediate environment of methane molecules released from a solid graphite surface more accurately than done previously. For the first time in a tokamak environment, the methane flow rate used in a puffing experiment was the same order of magnitude as that expected from laboratory experiments for intrinsic chemical sputtering.
Effective photon efficiencies for injection are reported; results are found to have significant dependencies on surface conditions and the divertor operating regime. The contribution of sputtering processes to sources of C0 and C+ are assessed through measurement of background and incremental spectroscopic emissions of both physically and chemically-released sputtering products and by CI, 910 nm line profile fitting. Comparison of background and incremental emissions of chemically-released products demonstrate a dramatic drop in production of CH in cold and detached conditions. Finally, the chemical erosion yield is calculated in both attached and cold-divertor conditions and found to be much closer to that measured ex-situ in ion beam experiments than previously determined in DII-D.
These observations represent a positive result for ITER which will operate at all times with a detached divertor, i.e., a low chemical sputtering yield. Results and analysis techniques presented here point the direction for future experiments with the PPI for study of chemical sputtering in the tokamak edge environment.2010-04-13T15:48:04Z