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T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries >
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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/11186

Title: A Theoretical Roadmap for Optical Lithography of Photonic Band Gap Microchips
Authors: Chan, Timothy
Advisor: John, Sajeev
Department: Physics
Keywords: optics
photonic band gap
photonic crystals
Issue Date: 30-Jul-2008
Abstract: This thesis presents designs and fabrication algorithms for 3D photonic band gap (PBG) material synthesis and embedded optical waveguide networks. These designs are suitable for large scale micro-fabrication using optical lithography methods. The first of these is a criss-crossing pore structure based on fabrication by direct photo-electrochemical etching in single-crystal silicon. We demonstrate that a modulation of the pore radius between pore crossing points leads to a moderately large PBG. We delineate a variety of PBG architectures amenable to fabrication by holographic lithography. In this technique, an optical interference pattern exposes a photo-sensitive material, leading to a template structure in the photoresist whose dielectric-air interface corresponds to an iso-intensity surface in the exposing interference pattern. We demonstrate PBG architectures obtainable from the interference patterns from four independent beams. The PBG materials may be fabricated by replicating the developed photoresist with established silicon replication methods. We identify optical beam configurations that optimize the intensity contrast in the photoresist. We describe the invention of a new approach to holographic lithography of PBG materials using the diffraction of light through a three-layer optical phase mask (OPM). We show how the diffraction-interference pattern resulting from single beam illumination of our OPM closely resembles a diamondlike architecture for suitable designs of the phase mask. It is suggested that OPML may both simplify and supercede all previous optical lithography approaches to PBG material synthesis. Finally, we demonstrate theoretically the creation of three-dimensional optical waveguide networks in holographically defined PBG materials. This requires the combination of direct laser writing (DLW) of lines of defects within the holographically-defined photoresist and the replication of the microchip template with a high refractive index semiconductor such as silicon. We demonstrate broad-band (100-200~nm), single-mode waveguiding in air, based on the light localization mechanism of the PBG as well as sharp waveguide bends in three-dimensions with minimal backscattering. This provides a basis for broadband 3D integrated optics in holographically defined optical microchips.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/11186
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Department of Physics - Doctoral theses

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