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|Title: ||Variable-aperture Photography|
|Authors: ||Hasinoff, Samuel William|
|Advisor: ||Kutulakos, Kiriakos Neoklis|
|Department: ||Computer Science|
|Keywords: ||computer vision|
high dynamic range imaging
|Issue Date: ||19-Jan-2009|
|Abstract: ||While modern digital cameras incorporate sophisticated engineering, in terms of their core functionality, cameras have changed remarkably little in more than a hundred years. In particular, from a given viewpoint, conventional photography essentially remains limited to manipulating a basic set of controls: exposure time, focus setting, and aperture setting.
In this dissertation we present three new methods in this domain, each based on capturing multiple photos with different camera settings. In each case, we show how defocus can be exploited to achieve different goals, extending what is possible with conventional photography. These methods are closely connected, in that all rely on analyzing changes in aperture.
First, we present a 3D reconstruction method especially suited for scenes with high geometric complexity, for which obtaining a detailed model is difficult using previous approaches. We show that by controlling both the focus and aperture setting, it is possible compute depth for each pixel independently. To achieve this, we introduce the "confocal constancy" property, which states that as aperture setting varies, the pixel intensity of an in-focus scene point will vary in a scene-independent way that can be predicted by prior calibration.
Second, we describe a method for synthesizing photos with adjusted camera settings in post-capture, to achieve changes in exposure, focus setting, etc. from very few input photos. To do this, we capture photos with varying aperture and other settings fixed, then recover the underlying scene representation best reproducing the input. The key to the approach is our layered formulation, which handles occlusion effects but is tractable to invert. This method works with the built-in "aperture bracketing" mode found on most digital cameras.
Finally, we develop a "light-efficient" method for capturing an in-focus photograph in the shortest time, or with the highest quality for a given time budget. While the standard approach involves reducing the aperture until the desired region is in-focus, we show that by "spanning" the region with multiple large-aperture photos,we can reduce the total capture time and generate the in-focus photo synthetically. Beyond more efficient capture, our method provides 3D shape at no additional cost.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Computer Science - Doctoral theses
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