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|Title: ||Global and Fine Scale Molecular Studies of Polyploid Evolution in Crataegus L. (Rosaceae)|
|Authors: ||Lo, Eugenia Yuk Ying|
|Advisor: ||Dickinson, Timothy|
|Department: ||Ecology and Evolutionary Biology|
|Issue Date: ||19-Jan-2009|
|Abstract: ||As many as 70% of angiosperm species are known to contain polyploids, but many aspects of polyploid evolution are unclear in woody plants. Crataegus is a woody genus of Rosaceae comprising 140-200 species that are widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere. Several species, particularly those in North America, are shown to contain polyploids. The overall goal of the thesis is to provide a better understanding of polyploid evolution by resolving problems from intergeneric to intraspecific levels in Crataegus using phylogenetic and population genetic approaches. Three major aspects were investigated: (1) Phylogeography of the Old and New World Crataegus; (2) Reproductive system and distribution of cytotypes of the black-fruited series Douglasianae in Pacific Northwest and; (3) Origins, population structure, and genetic diversity of diploid and polyploid species.
Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data provide evidences of historical events such as trans-Beringian migrations and North Atlantic vicariance that contributed to modern distribution of Crataegus. Poor resolution and short internal branches in eastern North American species suggest genetic bottlenecks and/or rapid divergence following glaciations. In the Pacific Northwest, polyploids of series Douglasianae show a wider distribution and ecological amplitude than diploids. Parsimony tree and network analyses indicate that autotriploids and allotriploids occur in C. suksdorfii, while tetraploid C. suksdorfii are formed via the triploid bridge followed by introgression of sympatric C. douglasii. At the regional level, microsatellite data indicate a separation of the Pacific coastal diploids and triploids from the Columbia Plateau and Rocky Mountain triploids and tetraploids. High genetic differentiation among C. suksdorfii populations suggests that gene flow is limited by ploidy level differences as well as geographical distance. Within-population multilocus genotypic variation is greatest in sexual diploids, and least in apomictic triploids. Frequent gene flow via seed dispersal contributes to an appreciable level of intrapopulation diversity in apomictic tetraploids, and counterbalances the effects of apomixis and/or self-fertilization, which diminish genetic variation within and between seed families. These findings collectively clarify taxonomy and historical biogeography, provide an explicit reticulation model for polyploid formation, and shed light on evolution of natural populations in woody plants that show heterogeneous ploidy levels and reproductive systems.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology - Doctoral theses
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