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|Title: ||Proteomic Analysis of Prostate Cancer Cell Line Conditioned Media for the Discovery of Candidate BIomarkers for Prostate Cancer|
|Authors: ||Sardana, Girish|
|Advisor: ||Diamandis, Eleftherios P.|
|Department: ||Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology|
|Keywords: ||Prostate Cancer|
|Issue Date: ||26-Feb-2009|
|Abstract: ||Early detection of prostate cancer is problematic due to the lack of a marker that has high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The prostate specific antigen test, in combination with digital rectal examination, is the gold standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. However, this modality suffers from low specificity. Therefore, specific markers for clinically relevant prostate cancer are needed. Our objective was to proteomically characterize the conditioned media from human prostate cancer cell lines to identify secreted proteins that could serve as novel prostate cancer biomarkers.
An initial proof of principle study of the PC3 prostate cancer cell line was conducted. From this study over 200 proteins were identified in the conditioned media. Through gene ontology analysis and literature searches Mac-2 binding protein was selected as a candidate biomarker for validation in the serum of prostate cancer patients. A preliminarily validation showed that Mac-2 binding protein has discriminatory ability in prostate cancer diagnosis. However, an extended validation did not confirm this.
Based on our proof of principle study we optimized our workflow and extended our analysis by culturing three different prostate cell lines [PC3 (bone metastasis), LNCaP (lymph node metastasis), and 22Rv1 (localized to prostate)]. We conducted a bottom-up analysis of each cell line by 2-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 2124 proteins identified, 12% (329) were classified as extracellular and 18% (504) as membrane-bound. Among the identified proteins were known prostate cancer biomarkers such as PSA and KLK2. To select the most promising candidates for further investigation, tissue specificity, biological function, disease association based on literature searches, and comparison of protein overlap with the proteome of seminal plasma and serum were examined. Based on these results, several candidates were selected for validation in serum of patients with and without prostate cancer. Of these four novel candidates: follistatin, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 16, pentraxin 3 and spondin 2 showed discriminatory ability.
Of the four candidates, follistatin was further studied in an extended validation in serum of patients with biopsy confirmed prostate cancer and tissues of prostate cancer patients of low and high grade tumours by immunohistochemistry. In addition, follistatin was also investigated in the tissue of colon and lung cancer where intense staining was observed in one specimen of lung squamous carcinoma.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology - Doctoral theses
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