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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17287

Title: Nuclear Factor (Erythroid 2-like) Factor 2 (Nrf2) as Cellular Protector in Bile Acid and Retinoid Toxicities
Authors: Tan, Kah Poh
Advisor: Ito, Shinya
Department: Pharmacology
Keywords: oxidative stress
glutathione
bile acid
Nrf2
retinoic acid
cholestasis
ATP-binding cassette transporters
mitogen activated protein kinase
multidrug resistance associated proteins
adaptive response
antioxidants
thioredoxin reductase
4-hydroxynonenal
lipid peroxidation
glutathione S-transferase
liver toxicity
antioxidant response element
cell defense
Issue Date: 26-Feb-2009
Abstract: Exposure to toxic bile acids (BA) and retinoic acids (RA) is implicated in toxicities related to excessive oxidative stress. This thesis examined roles and mechanisms of the oxidative stress-responsive nuclear factor (erythroid 2-like) factor 2 (Nrf2) in adaptive cell defense against BA and RA toxicities. Using liver cells and mouse models, many antioxidant proteins known to be Nrf2 target genes, particularly the rate-limiting enzyme for glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis, i.e., glutamate-cysteine ligase subunits (GCLM/GCLC), were induced by BA [lithocholic acid (LCA)] or RA (all-trans, 9-cis and 13-cis) treatment. Evidence for increased Nrf2 transactivation by LCA and all-trans-RA was exemplified in HepG2 by: (1) reduced constitutive and inducible expression of GCLM/GCLC upon Nrf2 silencing via small-interfering RNA; (2) increased inducible expression of GCLM/GCLC genes by Nrf2 overexpression, but overexpression of dominant-negative Nrf2 decreased it; (3) increased nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 as signature event of receptor activation; (4) enhanced Nrf2-dependent antioxidant-response-element (ARE) reporter activity as indicative of increased Nrf2 transactivation; and (5) increased Nrf2 occupancy to AREs of GCLM and GCLC. Additionally, in BA-treated HepG2 cells, we observed concomitant increases of many ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (MRPs 1-5, MDR1 and BCRP) in parallel with increased cellular efflux. Nrf2 silencing in HepG2 cells decreased constitutive and inducible expression of MRP2, MRP3 and ABCG2. However, Nrf2-silenced mouse hepatoma cells, Hepa1c1c7, and Nrf2-/- mice had decreased constitutive and/or inducible expression of Mrps 1-4, suggesting species differences in Nrf2-dependent regulation of hepatic ABC transporters. Protection by Nrf2 against BA and RA toxicities was confirmed by observations that Nrf2 silencing increased cell susceptibility to BA- and RA-induced cell death. Moreover, Nrf2-/- mice suffered more severe liver injury than the wildtype. Increased GSH and efflux activity following increased GCLM/GCLC and ABC transporters, respectively, can mitigate LCA toxicity. Activation of MEK1-ERK1/2 MAPK was shown to primarily mediate Nrf2 transactivation and LCA-induced expression of antioxidant proteins and Nrf2-dependent and -independent ABC transporters. In conclusion, Nrf2 activation by BA and RA led to coordinated induction of antioxidant and ABC proteins, thereby counteracting resultant oxidative cytotoxicity. The potential of targeting Nrf2 in management of BA and RA toxicities merits further investigation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17287
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology - Doctoral theses

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