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|Title: ||Coronary Artery Outcome in Kawasaki Disease: The Role of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Therapeutic Modulation of Its Activity|
|Authors: ||Lau, Andrew Chun-Ben|
|Advisor: ||Yeung, Rae S. M.|
|Department: ||Pharmaceutical Sciences|
tumour necrosis factor
|Issue Date: ||26-Feb-2009|
|Abstract: ||Kawasaki disease (KD) is a multisystem vasculitis that results in localized coronary artery elastin breakdown and aneurysm formation. It is the leading cause of acquired heart disease of children in North America. Despite conventional treatment, a significant proportion of patients continue to develop coronary sequelae. The mechanisms of arterial aneurysm formation in KD are not known.
Using a murine model of KD, Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract-induced coronary arteritis, the processes leading to coronary aneurysm formation were examined. Vessel damage occurred as a result of the increased enzymatic activity of the elastase, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. MMP-9 protein and activity levels were elevated in the heart post-disease induction. Expression and activity were specific for and localized to inflamed coronary arteries. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, was required for increasing local MMP-9 expression. Importantly, MMP-9-deficient animals had a significantly reduced incidence of elastin breakdown. Furthermore, in a cohort of KD patients, serum MMP-9 did not correlate with coronary outcome, highlighting the importance of local expression of this elastase.
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin/salicylate are therapeutic agents in current use for the treatment of KD, though their exact mechanisms of action in KD are not known. The biologic effects of IVIG and salicylate on critical stages of disease development were examined. IVIG and salicylate had differential effects on TNF-α expression, with therapeutic concentrations of IVIG inhibiting, and salicylate inducing, TNF-α expression leading to an indirect modulation of MMP-9 expression. Interestingly, TNF-α expression and MMP-9 activity were both directly inhibited by the metal-chelating drug doxycycline. Treatment of affected mice with doxycycline significantly improved coronary outcome. Inhibiting both the inflammatory response as well as the downstream effects of inflammation were of therapeutic value in this model of KD.
These results taken together demonstrate the importance of MMP-9 in the pathogenesis of coronary artery aneurysms in KD. Targeting MMP activity holds the promise of transforming KD from the leading cause of acquired heart disease to a self-limited febrile illness.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Leslie L. Dan Faculty of Pharmacy - Doctoral theses
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