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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17293

Title: Application of Pharmacokinetic Theory to Examine Roles of Transporters and Enzymes in Intestinal and Hepatic Drug Disposition
Authors: Sun, Huadong
Advisor: Pang, K. Sandy
Department: Pharmaceutical Sciences
Keywords: pharmacokinetics
transporter
enzyme
drug disposition
PBPK modeling
drug first-pass removal
Caco-2
liver perfusion
Issue Date: 26-Feb-2009
Abstract: The interplay of transporters and enzymes and their transporter-enzyme was examined in Caco-2 cell monolayer and recirculating perfused rat liver preprations via both theoretical and experimental approaches. First, a Caco-2 catenary model that consisted of the apical, cellular, basolateral compartments and encompasses influx, efflux transporters and enzymes was shown to be superior to the single barrier approach for data interpretation on transporter- and enzyme- mediated processes. The kinetics of baicalein, a flavonoid that undergoes glucuronidation and sulfation, were found to be described better by the catenary model for the complex kinetics of substrate inhibition in metabolism. Second, estradiol-17beta-D-glucuronide (E217G), a protypic substrate of Oatp1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 and Mrp2 that underwent futile cycling with its 3-sulfate metabolite (E23S17G) via estrogen sulfotransferase (Sult1e1) and arylsulfatase C, was examined in the perfused rat liver preparation. Solutions of the AUC and clearances were solved to relate the intrinsic clearances of transporters and enzymes to understand how these affected the apparent clearances in the presence of futile cycling. Transporters and enzymes were perturbed experimentally by the intraportal injection of CC531 colon carcinoma cells for tumor induction in Wag/Rij rat livers. The protein expression of Oatp1a1 and Oatp1b2 were reduced to half whereas Sult1e1 was increased by 40% with tumor development versus the sham-operated control. These data were well predicted by the physiologically-based liver model, showing the impact of increased sulfation intrinsic clearance but not the decreased influx clearance. The TR- (Mrp2 mutant) rat model was used to examine how the absence of Mrp2 for biliary secretion of both E217G and E23S17G affected futile cycling. Absence of Mrp2 was found to result in a pseudo steady-state and reduction of the total, excretion, and metabolic clearances in the liver. The work shed new insight on the interplay between enzymes and transporters and how kinetic processes mediated by enzymes or efflux transporters affected futile cycling.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17293
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Leslie L. Dan Faculty of Pharmacy - Doctoral theses

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