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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17484

Title: Beyond Chronic Rejection: Tissue Remodelling in Obliterative Bronchiolitis after Lung Transplantation
Authors: Sato, Masaaki
Advisor: Keshavjee, Shaf
Department: Medical Science
Keywords: Lung transplantation
chronic rejection
Issue Date: 30-Jul-2009
Abstract: The long-term success of lung transplantation has been challenged by chronic graft dysfunction, which is manifested as obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). We demonstrated that allograft airway fibrosis is a dynamic process of tissue remodelling, in which cellular and matrix components dynamically change before or after complete obliteration of the airway lumen. This dynamic process was associated with changes in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The early inflammatory phase was associated with MMP-dependent migration of blood-borne fibrocytes, which highly express MMP-9 and MMP-12. ‘Established’ fibrosis was associated with MMP-2 and MMP-14 expressed by myofibroblasts in both human OB lesions and their animal models. In established allograft airway fibrosis, general MMP inhibition resulted in apoptosis of myofibroblasts in vivo and in vitro, while low-doses of MMP-inhibitor treatment induced upregulation of MMP-2, increased collagenolytic activity, and significantly decreased myofibroblasts and collagen. The dynamic process of tissue remodelling in established allograft airway fibrosis was supported by underlying continuous alloimmune responses, in particular, direct T-cell-myofibroblast contact. iii Modulation of tissue remodelling using a low-dose MMP inhibitor in combination with cyclosporine induced partial regression of fibrosis after its establishment. We further demonstrated the mechanism of alloimmune responses unique to the lung. Human and animal studies demonstrated that bronchioles develop de novo lymphoid tissue characterized by formation of high endothelial venules and homing of effector memory T-cells. A following study demonstrated the important role of local immunological memory maintained by the intrapulmonary lymphoid tissue in exerting effector function in allograft rejection. Collectively, the present studies support the hypothesis that tissue remodelling is an important mechanism of allograft airway fibrosis. Regulation of tissue remodelling and underlying tissue injury is important not only to arrest aberrant remodelling of allograft airways but likely to reverse aberrant remodelling and to regenerate normal tissue architecture in airways after lung transplantation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17484
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Institute of Medical Science - Doctoral theses

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