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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17753

Title: Splashing and Breakup of Droplets Impacting on a Solid Surface
Authors: Dhiman, Rajeev
Advisor: Chandra, Sanjeev
Department: Mechanical and Industrial Engineering
Keywords: Fluid Dynamics
Heat Transfer
Droplet Impact
Droplet Splashing
Thermal Spray Coating
Water Jet Impact
Issue Date: 24-Sep-2009
Abstract: Two new mechanisms of droplet splashing and breakup during impact have been identified and analyzed. One is the internal rupture of spreading droplet film through formation of holes, and the other is the splashing of droplet due to its freezing during spreading. The mechanism of film rupture was investigated by two different methods. In the first method, circular water films were produced by directing a 1 mm diameter water jet onto a flat, horizontal plate for 10 ms. In the second method, films were produced by making 0.6 mm water droplets impact a solid surface mounted on the rim of a rotating flywheel. Substrate wettability was varied over a wide range, including superhydrophobic. In both cases, the tendency to film rupture first increased and then decreased with contact angle. A thermodynamic stability analysis predicted this behavior by showing that films would be stable at very small or very large contact angle, but unstable in between. Film rupture was also found to be promoted by increasing surface roughness or decreasing film thickness. To study the effect of solidification, the impact of molten tin droplets (0.6 mm diameter) on solid surfaces was observed for a range of impact velocities (10 to 30 m/s), substrate temperatures (25 to 200°C) and substrate materials (stainless steel, aluminum and glass) using the rotating flywheel apparatus. Droplets splashed extensively on a cold surface but on a hot surface there was no splashing. Splashing could be completely suppressed by either increasing the substrate temperature or reducing its thermal diffusivity. An analytical model was developed to predict this splashing behavior. The above two theories of freezing-induced splashing and film rupture were combined to predict the morphology of splats typically observed in a thermal spray process. A dimensionless solidification parameter, which takes into account factors such as the droplet diameter and velocity, substrate temperature, splat and substrate thermophysical properties, and thermal contact resistance between the two, was developed. Predictions from the model were compared with a wide range of experimental data and found to agree well.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17753
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering - Doctoral theses

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