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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17772

Title: Efficient Algorithms for Future Aircraft Design: Contributions to Aerodynamic Shape Optimization
Authors: Hicken, Jason
Advisor: Zingg, David W.
Department: Aerospace Science and Engineering
Keywords: induced drag
shape optimization
aircraft design
computational fluid dynamics
b-spline volume
Newton Krylov
GMRES
GCROT
adjoint
summation-by-parts
simultaneous approximation terms
Issue Date: 24-Sep-2009
Abstract: Advances in numerical optimization have raised the possibility that efficient and novel aircraft configurations may be ``discovered'' by an algorithm. To begin exploring this possibility, a fast and robust set of tools for aerodynamic shape optimization is developed. Parameterization and mesh-movement are integrated to accommodate large changes in the geometry. This integrated approach uses a coarse B-spline control grid to represent the geometry and move the computational mesh; consequently, the mesh-movement algorithm is two to three orders faster than a node-based linear elasticity approach, without compromising mesh quality. Aerodynamic analysis is performed using a flow solver for the Euler equations. The governing equations are discretized using summation-by-parts finite-difference operators and simultaneous approximation terms, which permit nonsmooth mesh continuity at block interfaces. The discretization results in a set of nonlinear algebraic equations, which are solved using an efficient parallel Newton-Krylov-Schur strategy. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is adopted. The gradient is evaluated using adjoint variables for the flow and mesh equations in a sequential approach. The flow adjoint equations are solved using a novel variant of the Krylov solver GCROT. This variant of GCROT is flexible to take advantage of non-stationary preconditioners and is shown to outperform restarted flexible GMRES. The aerodynamic optimizer is applied to several studies of induced-drag minimization. An elliptical lift distribution is recovered by varying spanwise twist, thereby validating the algorithm. Planform optimization based on the Euler equations produces a nonelliptical lift distribution, in contrast with the predictions of lifting-line theory. A study of spanwise vertical shape optimization confirms that a winglet-up configuration is more efficient than a winglet-down configuration. A split-tip geometry is used to explore nonlinear wake-wing interactions: the optimized split-tip demonstrates a significant reduction in induced drag relative to a single-tip wing. Finally, the optimal spanwise loading for a box-wing configuration is investigated.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17772
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Institute for Aerospace Studies - Doctoral theses

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