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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17778

Title: Effect of De-icer and Anti-icer Chemicals on the Durability, Microstructure, and Properties of Cement-based Materials
Authors: Julio Betancourt, Gustavo Adolfo
Advisor: Hooton, Robert Douglas
Department: Civil Engineering
Keywords: cement
concrete
durability
chemical attack
oxychlorides
de-icers
anti-icers
calcium chloride
magnesium chloride
sodium chloride
potassium acetate
calcium magnesium acetate
salt scaling
freezing and thawing
Issue Date: 24-Sep-2009
Abstract: A comprehensive study was conducted on the effects of de-icer and anti-icer chemicals on cement-based materials. Portland cement mortars and concretes were exposed to over 16 chloride-based and non-chloride-based generic and commercial products and changes in cement-based material properties were measured. Deleterious chemical actions of several types of these products on cement-based materials were observed, departing from the well-known position that attributes the concrete damage from such salts mainly to physical actions under freezing and thawing exposure. Independent of freezing and thawing exposure, mortars and concretes exposed to concentrated calcium chloride and magnesium chloride solutions were found to undergo severe deterioration whereas those exposed to sodium chloride did not. The mechanisms of deterioration are complex with factors such as concentration, temperature, and availability of calcium hydroxide playing important roles. It was found that the formation of calcium oxychloride of the form 3Ca(OH)2.CaCl2.12H2O, and the 3- and 5-form magnesium oxychloride, 3Mg(OH)2.MgCl2.8H2O and 5Mg(OH)2.MgCl2.8H2O, were the main causes for the severe deterioration, and to a lesser extent brucite, gypsum, and magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H). The instability of these oxychloride compounds when subjected to conditions normally encountered in sample preparation is suggested as the reason why field investigations have failed to relate distressed concrete to chemical attack by such de-icer and anti-icer chemicals. Concentrated solutions of calcium magnesium acetate were also found to be harmful to cement-based materials by dissolution of calcium hydroxide and formation of calcium acetate hydrate, whereas low concentrated solutions tended to cause slow deterioration by magnesium attack forming brucite, gypsum, and M-S-H. Potassium acetate chemicals did not cause significant deterioration in mortars when these products were diluted (25% by mass), but undiluted products (50% by mass) caused considerable distress in concrete specimens. The combined effect of chemical attack impairing concrete mechanical properties and subsequent salt scaling damage was proposed as the most likely mechanisms of field deterioration.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17778
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Department of Civil Engineering - Doctoral theses

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