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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17843

Title: Pain During Dressing Change: How does Attachment Style Affect Pain in the Older Adults?
Authors: Woo, Kevin Y.
Advisor: Sadavoy, Joel
Department: Medical Science
Keywords: Pain
Attachment theory
Chronic wound
Issue Date: 28-Sep-2009
Abstract: Wound-related pain is complex, integrating the experience of noncyclic acute wound pain, cyclic acute wound pain, and chronic wound pain (Krasner 1995). More than 80% of chronic wound patients report pain during wound dressing change. A constellation of physical and psychological factors may be involved in the mediation of pain during wound dressing change. A burgeoning body of evidence suggests the intricate relationship between anxiety and pain. In this study, the attachment framework was examined to determine how personal views of self (attachment anxiety) and others (attachment avoidance) may affect pain during dressing change. Attachment styles are systematic patterns of expectations, emotional reactivity, strategies for distress management and social behaviour that are based on an individual’s belief about the self and others. Internal working models are cognitive-affective schemas that guide the attachment patterns. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of attachment style and pain during dressing change in an older population. In particular the study focussed on the role that anxiety, anticipatory self reported pain, and behavioural expression of pain play in this relationships. Method: A questionnaire was used in this cross-sectional study to classify 96 older subjects into four different categories of attachment styles. Subjects were asked to rate their levels of anticipatory pain and actual pain levels at different times during wound care using a numerical rating scale. Results: The results indicated that subjects experienced more pain during dressing change than at baseline. Secure subjects reported less pain and anxiety than subjects with other attachment styles. Results of regression analysis indicated that anxiety mediated the relationship between attachment and pain. Conclusion: The results of this study also support the role that attachment plays in the experience of pain in older adults. Clinicians must be cognizant of the impact of personality, anxiety, and anticipation of pain on the actual pain experience.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/17843
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Institute of Medical Science - Doctoral theses

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