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|Title: ||Seismic Imaging of Gas Hydrate Reservoir Heterogeneities|
|Authors: ||Huang, Junwei|
|Advisor: ||Milkereit, Bernd|
|Keywords: ||Gas Hydrate|
|Issue Date: ||18-Feb-2010|
|Abstract: ||Natural gas hydrate, a type of inclusion compound or clathrate, are composed of gas molecules trapped within a cage of water molecules. The presence of gas hydrate has been confirmed by core samples recovered from boreholes. Interests in the distribution of natural gas hydrate stem from its potential as a future energy source, geohazard to drilling activities and their possible impact on climate change. However the current geophysical investigations of gas hydrate reservoirs are still too limited to fully resolve the location and the total amount of gas hydrate due to its complex nature of distribution. The goal of this thesis is twofold, i.e., to model (1) the heterogeneous gas hydrate reservoirs and (2) seismic wave propagation in the presence of heterogeneities in order to address the fundamental questions: where are the location and occurrence of gas hydrate and how much is stored in the sediments.
Seismic scattering studies predict that certain heterogeneity scales and velocity contrasts will generate strong scattering and wave mode conversion. Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) techniques can be used to calibrate seismic characterization of gas hydrate expressions on surface seismograms. To further explore the potential of VSP in detecting the heterogeneities, a wave equation based approach for P- and S-wave separation is developed. Tests on synthetic data as well as applications to field data suggest alternative acquisition geometries for VSP to enable wave mode separation.
A new reservoir modeling technique based on random medium theory is developed to construct heterogeneous multi-variable models that mimic heterogeneities of hydrate-bearing sediments at the level of detail provided by borehole logging data. Using this new technique, I modeled the density, and P- and S-wave velocities in combination with a modified Biot-Gassmann theory and provided a first order estimate of the in situ volume of gas hydrate near the Mallik 5L-38 borehole. Our results suggest a range of 528 to 768×10^6 m^3/km^2 of natural gas trapped within hydrate, nearly an order of magnitude lower than earlier estimates which excluded effects of small-scale heterogeneities. Further, the petrophysical models are combined with a 3-D Finite Difference method to study seismic attenuation. Thus a framework is built to further tune the models of gas hydrate reservoirs with constraints from well logs other disciplinary data.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Physics - Doctoral theses
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