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|Title: ||Involvement of Nitric Oxide in Osteoclastogenesis and Orthodontic Tooth Movement|
|Authors: ||Nilforoushan, Dorrin|
|Advisor: ||Manolson, Morris Frank|
|Keywords: ||Nitric oxide, osteoclasts, orthodontic|
|Issue Date: ||19-Feb-2010|
|Abstract: ||Nitric oxide (NO) is a short lived free radical regulating bone turnover and bone cell function (1, 2). Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone resorbing cells which form by fusion of pre-osteoclasts. In addition, NO is a signaling molecule in mechanical loading of the bone (3), and in orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) (4). In OTM, force is applied to the tooth and transferred to the bone resulting in bone remodeling leading to tooth movement.
This project has two parts:
1) NO in osteoclastogenesis: a) An intense NO signal was observed in pre-osteoclasts preceding cell fusion. b) Osteoclastogenesis increased when cells were exposed to the NOS inhibitor, L-NMMA, during their differentiation phase. c) In contrast, pre-osteoclast fusion decreased in presence of to L-NMMA during the fusion phase. d) NOS inhibitors, decreased osteoclast formation. e) The inhibitory effect of L-NMMA on osteoclast formation was abolished with increasing concentrations of sRANKL. f) NO donors increased osteoclast formation. g) An increase in NO production coincided with pre-osteoclasts fusion. h) Inhibiting fusion decreased osteoclast formation and NO production. i) L-NMMA decreased, while NO donors increased actin free barbed ends. Conclusion: While NO initially negatively regulates pre-osteoclast differentiation, it later facilitates the fusion of mononuclear pre-osteoclasts, possibly by up regulating actin remodeling.
2) Involvement of NO in OTM: Differential expression of NOS isoforms was investigated in periodontal ligament (PDL) and bone in tension and pressure sides using immunohistochemistry with NOS isoforms in a rat model of OTM. a) Expression of all isoforms was increased in the tension side. b) iNOS and nNOS expressions in the pressure side with the cell free zone were decreased while in the pressure side without the cell free zone were increased. c) The intensity of eNOS staining was increased in the tension side. d) Duration of force only changed the pattern of nNOS expression. e) Osteocyte NOS expression did not change. Conclusion: All NOS isoforms are involved in OTM with different expression patterns between the tension and pressure with nNOS being more involved in early OTM. PDL cells, rather than osteocytes are the mechanosensors in early OTM with regards to NO signaling.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Faculty of Dentistry - Doctoral theses
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