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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/19198

Title: Characterization and Utilization of Cement Kiln Dusts (CKDs) as Partial Replacements of Portland Cement
Authors: Khanna, Om Shervan
Advisor: Hooton, Robert Douglas
Department: Civil Engineering
Keywords: cement kiln dust
ckd
hydration
durability
composition
expansion
sulfate
cement
Issue Date: 1-Mar-2010
Abstract: The characteristics of cement kiln dusts (CKDs) and their effects as partial replacement of Portland Cement (PC) were studied in this research program. The materials used in this study were two different types of PC (normal and moderate sulfate resistant) and seven CKDs. The CKDs used in this study were selected to provide a representation of those available in North America from the three major types of cement manufacturing processes: wet, long-dry, and preheater/precalciner. Two fillers (limestone powder and quartz powder) were also used to compare their effects to that of CKDs at an equivalent replacement of PC. It was found that CKDs can contain significant amounts of amorphous material (>30%) and clinker compounds (>20%) and small amounts of slag and/or flyash (<5%) and calcium langbeinite (<5%). The study found that CKDs from preheater/precalciner kilns have different effects on workability and heat evolution than CKDs from wet and long-dry kilns due to the presence of very reactive and high free lime contents (>20%). The blends with the two CKDs from preheater/precalciner plants had higher paste water demand, lower mortar flows, and higher heat generation during initial hydrolysis in comparison to all other CKD-PC blends and control cements. The hardened properties of CKD as a partial substitute of PC appear to be governed by the sulfate content of the CKD-PC blend (the form of the CKD sulfate is not significant). According to analysis of the ASTM expansion in limewater test results, the CKD-PC blend sulfate content should be less than ~0.40% above the optimum sulfate content of the PC. It was also found that the sulfate contribution of CKD behaves similar to gypsum. Therefore, CKD-PC blends could be optimized for sulfate content by using CKD as a partial substitute of gypsum during the grinding process to control the early hydration of C3A. The wet and long-dry kiln CKDs contain significant amounts of calcium carbonate (>20%) which could also be used as partial replacement of limestone filler in PC.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/19198
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Department of Civil Engineering - Doctoral theses

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