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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/19221

Title: Quantum Theory of Phonon-mediated Decoherence and Relaxation of Two-level Systems in a Structured Electromagnetic Reservoir
Authors: Roy, Chiranjeeb
Advisor: John, Sajeev
Department: Physics
Keywords: Photonic Crystal
Quantum Dot
Issue Date: 2-Mar-2010
Abstract: In this thesis we study the role of nonradiative degrees of freedom on quantum optical properties of mesoscopic quantum dots placed in the structured electromagnetic reservoir of a photonic crystal. We derive a quantum theory of the role of acoustic and optical phonons in modifying the optical absorption lineshape, polarization dynamics, and population dynamics of a two-level atom (quantum dot) in the ``colored" electromagnetic vacuum of a photonic band gap (PBG) material. This is based on a microscopic Hamiltonian describing both radiative and vibrational processes quantum mechanically. Phonon sidebands in an ordinary electromagnetic reservoir are recaptured in a simple model of optical phonons using a mean-field factorization of the atomic and lattice displacement operators. Our formalism is then used to treat the non-Markovian dynamics of the same system within the structured electromagnetic density of states of a photonic crystal. We elucidate the extent to which phonon-assisted decay limits the lifetime of a single photon-atom bound state and derive the modified spontaneous emission dynamics due to coupling to various phonon baths. We demonstrate that coherent interaction with undamped phonons can lead to enhanced lifetime of a photon-atom bound state in a PBG by (i) dephasing and reducing the transition electric dipole moment of the atom and (ii) reducing the quantum mechanical overlap of the state vectors of the excited and ground state (polaronic shift). This results in reduction of the steady-state atomic polarization but an increase in the fractionalized upper state population in the photon-atom bound state. We demonstrate, on the other hand, that the lifetime of the photon-atom bound state in a PBG is limited by the lifetime of phonons due to lattice anharmonicities (break-up of phonons into lower energy phonons) and purely nonradiative decay. We demonstrate how these additional damping effects limit the extent of the polaronic (Franck-Condon) shift of the atomic excited state. We also derive the modified polarization decay and dephasing rates in the presence of such damping. This leads to a microscopic, quantum theory of the optical absorption lineshapes. Our model and formalism provide a starting point for describing dephasing and relaxation in the presence of external coherent fields and multiple quantum dot interactions in electromagnetic reservoirs with radiative memory effects.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/19221
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Department of Physics - Doctoral theses

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