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|Title: ||Linker-based Lecithin Microemulsions as Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems|
|Authors: ||Yuan, Shuhong Jessica|
|Advisor: ||Acosta, Edgar|
|Department: ||Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry|
|Keywords: ||lecithin microemulsions|
transdermal drug delivery
|Issue Date: ||3-Mar-2010|
|Abstract: ||The interest in microemulsions as transdermal delivery systems have been motivated by their large surface area for mass transfer, their high solubilization capacity of hydrophobic actives, and their ability to improve skin penetration. Lecithins (mixtures of phospholipids similar to those find in the skin) have been proposed as ideal surfactants in microemulsions due to their skin compatibility. Unfortunately, their incorporation into microemulsions used to require toxic medium-chain alcohols or viscous polymeric co-surfactants. Recently, microemulsion-base “green solvents” were formulated with lecithin and linker molecules. The main objective of this dissertation was to test this concept of linker-based lecithin microemulsions in transdermal delivery.
In the first part of this study, linker-based lecithin formulations were developed using soybean lecithin as main surfactant, sorbitol monooleate as lipophilic linker, and caprylic acid/sodium caprylate as hydrophilic linkers. These additives, at the suggested concentration, are safe for cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. The low toxicity of these formulations was confirmed in cultured human skin tissues. The solubilization and permeation of a common anaesthetic, lidocaine, was evaluated. The concept of “skin” permeability was introduced to account for the differences in solvent-skin partition when comparing different delivery systems. The linker-based lecithin microemulsion produced a substantial absorption of lidocaine into the skin, when compared to a conventional pentanol-lecithin microemulsion. The second part of this study takes advantage of the lidocaine adsorbed in the skin with the linker-based lecithin microemulsion as reservoir for in situ skin patches. The in situ patches were able to release 90% of the lidocaine over 24 hours, which is comparable to the release profile obtained from conventional polymer or gel-based patches. In the third part of this work, the role of surfactant droplets on the transport of lidocaine was studied. A mass balance model that accounted for mass transfer and partition coefficients was introduced. The parameters generated from the model confirm that in most cases the transport through the skin limits the overall penetration of lidocaine. Besides the conventional diffusion mechanism, the results suggest that surfactant droplets, carrying lidocaine, also penetrate into the skin and contribute to the accumulation of the lidocaine in the skin.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry - Doctoral theses
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