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|Title: ||Role of Bacterial Effectors SopD and SopB in Pathogenicity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.|
|Authors: ||Bakowski, Malina A.|
|Advisor: ||Brumell, John|
|Department: ||Molecular and Medical Genetics|
type III secretion
|Issue Date: ||3-Mar-2010|
|Abstract: ||Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a facultative intracellular pathogen that has evolved to take advantage of the eukaryotic host cells it inhabits during infection. It uses bacterial effectors translocated into the host cell cytosol to manipulate host cell machinery and establish a replicative niche. In this thesis I study the function of two of these effectors, SopD and SopB, which have been shown to act cooperatively to induce phenotypes associated with gastroenteritis (fluid secretion and neutrophil influx into the intestinal lumen).
In addition to promoting gastroenteritis, SopD has also been implicated in systemic and persistent infection of mice. Although recently implicated in invasion, the precise function of SopD has remained elusive. Here I show that SopD affects membrane dynamics during S. Typhimurium invasion of epithelial cells. SopD promotes membrane sealing and macropinosome formation, events that may have important consequences for efficiency of bacterial cell entry in vivo. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SopD is recruited to the invasion site membranes through the phosphatase activity of SopB, suggesting a mechanism for their cooperative action during induction of gastroenteritis.
Unlike SopD, SopB has been a focus of intense research efforts and its role in invasion as a phosphoinositide phosphatase is well documented. However, we have observed that SopB also inhibits fusion of lysosomes with Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs) following invasion. This ability depends on SopB-mediated reduction of negative membrane charge of the SCV during invasion by hydrolysis of the phosphoinositide PI(4,5)P2. Membrane charge alterations driven by SopB result in removal of Rab GTPases from the SCV that depend on electrostatic interactions for their targeting. Two of these Rabs, Rab23 and Rab35 were previously shown to promote phagosome-lysosome fusion. Therefore their removal from the SCV may promote SCV trafficking away from the degradative endocytic pathway of host cells. This represents a new mechanism by which an invasion associated effector controls SCV maturation.
Together, this work advances our knowledge of the interaction between S. Typhimurium and its host. This research also suggests a new mechanism by which pathogens other than S. Typhimurium could promote their intracellular survival.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Molecular Genetics - Doctoral theses
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