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|Title: ||Molecular Mechanisms Involved in Insulin and Palmitate Actions on Clonal, Hypothalamic Cell Lines Expressing Neuropeptide Y and Agouti-related Peptide|
|Authors: ||Mayer, Christopher|
|Advisor: ||Belsham, Denise|
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Free fatty acids
|Issue Date: ||3-Mar-2010|
|Abstract: ||Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ensues from diminished insulin sensitivity and abated compensatory insulin secretion. While diminished insulin secretion has a strong genetic origin, environmental factors are central in the development of insulin resistance; these include hyperinsulinemia and lipotoxicity. Insulin resistance results in the dysregulation of hypothalamic neurons that mediate its central actions: a key intermediary neuron is the neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neuron. The hypothesis therefore was generated that insulin directly regulates NPY/AgRP neurons, and that prolonged insulin or palmitate, a prevalent free fatty acid (FFA), exposure inhibits neuronal insulin signaling. Using well characterized hypothalamic cell lines, mHypoE-46 or mHypoE-44, which express NPY, AgRP and insulin receptor signaling machinery, this hypothesis was examined in three studies.
Correspondingly, insulin decreased NPY and AgRP mRNA expression in the mHypoE-46 cells, through an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) dependent mechanism; whereas prolonged exposure of NPY/AgRP cells to insulin or palmitate attenuated insulin signaling, determined by analysis of phosphorylated Akt. Insulin induced insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) serine 1101 phosphorylation in mHypoE-46 cells, utilizing the mTOR-S6K1 pathway, as the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin prevented IRS-1 serine phosphorylation. Insulin also decreased insulin receptor and IRS-1 protein levels; this was prevented by lysosomal and proteasomal pathway inhibitors, 3-methyladenine and epoxomicin, respectively. Importantly, rapamycin, epoxomicin or 3-methyladenine pre-treatment decreased the attenuation of insulin signaling during long-term insulin exposure. On the other hand, palmitate activated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the apoptosis effector caspase 3, and induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mHypoE-44 cells: JNK inhibition prevented ER stress. In an attempt to avert the deleterious effects of palmitate, the neuronal cells were treated with the 5`AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR, a possible insulin sensitizer. Interestingly, AICAR attenuated JNK and caspase 3 activation, and restored insulin signaling.
These findings demonstrate that insulin directly regulates NPY/AgRP neuronal cells, and that insulin and palmitate provoke neuronal insulin resistance through different mechanisms. These findings substantiate the idea that environmental factors known to trigger peripheral insulin resistance may have consequences at the level of the individual hypothalamic neuron, which may ultimately contribute to the resulting pathophysiological states of obesity and T2DM.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Physiology - Doctoral theses
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