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|Title: ||Nod1 and Nod2 in Innate Immune Responses, Adaptive Immunity and Bacterial Infection|
|Authors: ||Le Bourhis, Lionel|
|Advisor: ||Philpott, Dana Jean|
|Keywords: ||Innate immunity|
|Issue Date: ||13-Apr-2010|
|Abstract: ||The last decade has been witness to a number of seminal discoveries in the field of innate immunity. The discovery that microbial molecules and endogenous danger signals can be detected by germ-line encoded receptors has changed the way we study the immune system. Indeed, the characterization of Toll in Drosophila as a sensor of microbial products in 1997 then led to the discovery of a family of Toll Like Receptors (TLRs) in mammals. TLRs are critical for the induction of inflammatory responses and the generation of a successful adaptive immune response. The array of ligands that these transmembrane proteins recognized mediates defense against bacteria, viruses, fungus and parasites, as well as, possibly, cancerous cells.
In addition to this membrane-bound family of recognition proteins, two families of pattern recognition receptors have been recently shown to respond to microbial and chemical ligands within the cytosol. These represent the Nod Like Receptors (NLRs) and RIGI-like helicase receptor (RLH) families. Nod1 and Nod2 are members of the NLR family of proteins, which are responsible for the recognition of components derived from the bacterial cell wall, more precisely, moieties of peptidoglycan. As such, Nod1 and Nod2 are implicated in the recognition and the defense against bacterial pathogens. Importantly, the genes encoding these two proteins have also been linked to the etiology of several inflammatory disorders such as Crohn’s disease and asthma.
In this thesis, we show that recognition of Nod1 and Nod2 ligands generates a rapid and transient inflammatory response in vivo. When co-injected with a model protein, Nod1 and Nod2 ligands exhibit adjuvant properties that lead to the generation of an antigen-specific Th2 type adaptive immune response. Surprisingly, recognition of the Nod1 ligand in non-hematopoietic cells is critical for the generation of this immune response. In contrast, TLRs classically tip the balance towards a Th1 response and interestingly, co-injection of TLR and Nod ligands synergize to generate a more potent immune response characterized by the generation of Th1, Th2 and Th17 T cell respones.
To study the role of Nod1 and Nod2 in the context of a bacterial infection in vivo, we used an intestinal mouse pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We were able to show that Nod1-deficient mice, but not Nod2-deficient mice, are more susceptible to the strain of this bacterium, which enters the host through the active pickup in the intestinal lumen by underlying myeloid cells. This sampling mechanism is mediated by a subset of dendritic cells that populate the intestinal lamina propria. Accordingly, the defect seen in Nod1-deficient mice localizes to the mucosal barrier where these dendritic cells appear to have an impaired response towards the bacteria.
Taken together, these results increase our knowledge on the general role of Nod1 and Nod2 in immunity and might generate new avenues of research and potential therapeutic targets.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Immunology - Doctoral theses
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