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|Title: ||Affective Processing in Major Depressive Disorder: Neuroanatomical Correlates of State and Trait Abnormailities|
|Authors: ||Konarski, Jakub Z.|
|Advisor: ||Kennedy, Sidney H.|
McIntyre, Roger S.
|Department: ||Medical Science|
|Keywords: ||major depressive disorder|
functional magnetic resonance imaging
|Issue Date: ||21-Apr-2010|
|Abstract: ||Patients with MDD demonstrate impairments in various components of affective processing, which are believed to persist in the remitted phase of the illness and are believed to underlie the vulnerability for future relapse. Despite advances in neuropsychiatry, the neuroanatomical site of action of various treatment modalities remains unclear, leaving clinicians without an algorithm to guide optimal treatment selection for individual patients.
This thesis sought to characterize differences in brain activation during affective processing between MDD treatment responders (RS) and non-responders (NR) by combining clinical and neuroimaging variables in a repeat-measure functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigation. We induced increases in positive and negative affect using visual stimuli under fMRI conditions in 21 MDD subjects and 18 healthy controls (HC).
Based on previous neuroimaging investigations and preclinical animal data, we hypothesized that increased activation of the amygdala and the pregenual cingulate during negative affect induction (NAI), and decreased activity of the ventral striatum during positive affect induction (PAI), would differentiate ultimate NR from RS. Following the first scan, treatment with fluoxetine and olanzapine was initiated in the MDD group, with follow-up scans at one- and six-weeks thereafter. We hypothesized that decreases in depressive symptoms would be associated with decreased activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and amygdala during NAI and increased activation of the hippocampus during PAI.
Eleven MDD subjects met criteria for clinical remission at study endpoint. Based on trait differences between MDD and HC, we hypothesized that differences observed during NAI would be limited to brain regions involved in regulation of the affective state, including the dorsolateral PFC and the anterior midcingulate cortex.
The results of the analyses confirmed the a-prior hypotheses and additionally demonstrated differential activation of the insular, medial temporal, and premotor cortex during repeat PAI and NAI between HC, RS, and NR. These findings provide: i) a neuroanatomical target of successful antidepressant therapy during PAI/NAI; ii) a differential effect of depressive symptoms and dispositional affect on brain activation during PAI/NAI; and iii) an a-prior method to differentiate RS from NR, and iv) demonstrate the need for additional treatment to prevent relapse in the remitted state.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Institute of Medical Science - Doctoral theses
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