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|Title: ||New Routes to Pnictogen-containing Polymers|
|Authors: ||Greenberg, Sharonna|
|Advisor: ||Stephan, Douglas|
|Keywords: ||inorganic chemistry|
|Issue Date: ||12-Aug-2010|
|Abstract: ||New synthetic routes to nitrogen- and phosphorus-containing polymers have been investigated. These routes rely on amine- and phosphine-containing monomers bearing pendant alkyne substituents, and subsequent hydroamination, oxidation, or hydrophosphination polymerization.
A series of primary amines of the form H2NC6H2R2C≡CR’ (R = H or iPr; R’ = Ph, SiMe3, nBu, or p-C6H4Me) is reported. These amines are deprotonated with nBuLi to give lithium amides, which react with zirconocene compounds to provide amidozirconium complexes. Characterization is achieved by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, X ray crystallography, and DFT calculations.
Three routes were attempted towards nitrogen-containing oligomers: (1) thermolysis of amidozirconium complexes to afford [2+2] cycloaddition polymers; (2) Ti(IV)-catalyzed hydroamination of H2NC6H4C≡CPh; (3) chemical oxidation of H2NC6H4C≡CPh. The latter two strategies resulted in distinct nitrogen-containing oligomers. The oligomer formed by Ti(NR2)4-catalyzed hydroamination (R = Me, Et) contains up to 15 repeat units in the chain, with both imine and enamine moieties, and is capped by a molecule of HNR2 (R = Me or Et) originating from the catalyst. The oligomer formed by chemical oxidation contains up to 9 repeat units in the chain.
A series of phosphines of the form X2PC6H2R2C≡CR’ is reported (X = NEt2, Cl, H; R = Me, iPr; R’ = Ph, SiMe3). Characterization is achieved by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, high-resolution mass spectrometry, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography. The primary phosphines, H2PC6H2R2C≡CR’, are relatively “user-friendly” in that they are not particularly malodorous, they are isolated as solids or highly viscous liquids, and they are stable when stored under N2 in the solid state and in solution.
The primary phosphine H2PC6H2iPr2C≡CPh serves as a precursor for a zirconium phosphinidene and for the secondary phosphines RP(H)C6H2iPr2C≡CPh (R = CH2iPr, CH2Ph). Hydrophosphination polymerization gives cyclic P(III)-containing oligomers, which are converted to P(V)-based macromolecules by treatment with sulfur. The oligomers contain ca. 5 to 10 repeat units, and heating to 800 °C gives rise to phosphorus-containing ceramics. The mechanism of hydrophosphination is discussed with the use of DFT calculations.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Department of Chemistry - Doctoral theses
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