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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/24820

Title: The Role of the Carotenoid Lycopene as an Antioxidant to Decrease Osteoporosis Risk in Women: Clinical and in vitro Studies
Authors: Mackinnon, Erin Shea
Advisor: Rao, Leticia G.
Department: Medical Science
Keywords: lycopene
antioxidant
osteoporosis
bone turnover markers
oxidative stress
paraoxonase
bone
reactive oxygen species
Issue Date: 31-Aug-2010
Abstract: Lycopene is a potent carotenoid antioxidant shown to decrease the risk of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress and has recently begun to be studied in relation to osteoporosis. However, studies specifically associating intervention with lycopene and a decreased risk for osteoporosis have not yet been conducted, and the mechanisms by which lycopene affects bone have yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this thesis was to explore the hypotheses that supplementation with lycopene would increase antioxidant capacity while decreasing oxidative stress parameters; subsequently decreasing bone turnover markers, and thus the risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Specifically, experiments were designed to determine whether lycopene acts in its antioxidant capacity to improve bone health, and to delineate the mechanisms of these effects. These hypotheses were investigated through a cross-sectional study, a randomized controlled clinical study, and in vitro studies on human osteoblast cells. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that intervention with the potent antioxidant lycopene significantly increased concentrations of the 5-cis isomer and resulted in significantly decreased oxidative stress parameters in postmenopausal women. This decrease in oxidative stress parameters resulted in significantly decreased concentrations of the bone resorption marker crosslinked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx). The typical diet of participants included a relatively low intake of lycopene, and the corresponding serum lycopene concentrations were not as effective in decreasing biomarkers of oxidative stress and bone resorption as those obtained from supplementation with lycopene to increase 5-cis serum lycopene. Studies on the paraoxonase enzyme suggest that lycopene is most effective in quenching oxidative stress to decrease bone turnover markers when the internal antioxidant defenses are insufficient or decremented. Mechanisms demonstrated by the in vitro findings suggest that cis lycopene is capable of both preventing and repairing the damaging effects of oxidative stress in osteoblasts. Overall, this thesis provides evidence that lycopene acts through its antioxidant capacity to decrease oxidative stress parameters and bone turnover markers, and may, therefore, reduce the risk for osteoporosis. Based on these findings, the consumption of lycopene by women to improve overall bone health should be considered.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/24820
Appears in Collections:Doctoral
Institute of Medical Science - Doctoral theses

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