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|Title: ||Fetal Exposure to Antidiabetic Drugs: The Role of the Placenta|
|Authors: ||Pollex, Erika|
|Advisor: ||Koren, Gideon|
|Department: ||Pharmaceutical Sciences|
|Keywords: ||gestational diabetes|
|Issue Date: ||1-Sep-2010|
|Abstract: ||Gestational diabetes, a common medical complication in pregnancy, may lead to severe fetal consequences if left untreated. A major concern with the use of antidiabetic drugs in pregnancy is the potential for placental transfer and fetal toxicity. The presence of endocytic pathways and several ABC transporter proteins has been demonstrated in the human placenta and are believed to play an important role in determining fetal exposure to drugs used in pregnancy. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the safety and transfer of the oral hypoglycemic agent, glyburide, and the new long acting insulin analog, insulin glargine, across the human placenta.
The oral antidiabetic, glyburide, has been shown to be actively effluxed across the placenta in the fetal to maternal direction. The transport of glyburide in the presence of a breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitor was investigated in the dually perfused human placenta model. The results of the perfusion studies indicate that BCRP plays a role in protecting the fetus from the accumulation of glyburide. Subsequently, cellular studies were carried out to determine the effect of the naturally occurring single nucleotide polymorphism within the coding region of BCRP (C421A/Q141K) on glyburide transport. Results suggest that glyburide transport may be reduced in the presence of the Q141K polymorphism.
While insulin remains as the gold standard, the potential for maternal hypoglycemia with insulin injection has resulted in the development of insulin analogs. Insulin glargine, a human insulin analog, has a long half life with no pronounced peak when compared to currently used NPH insulin. Human placental perfusion experiments examining the extent and rate of transfer of insulin glargine across the placenta demonstrated that, at therapeutic concentrations, insulin glargine does not cross the placenta to a measurable extent. To further determine the fetal safety of insulin glargine therapy compared with NPH insulin, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. No evidence was identified for increased adverse fetal outcomes with the use of insulin glargine during pregnancy. Overall, the results of this research serve to provide improved treatment options for women with diabetes in pregnancy.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
Leslie L. Dan Faculty of Pharmacy - Doctoral theses
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