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|Title: ||Genetic Determinants of Carbohydrate Consumption|
|Authors: ||Eny, Karen M.|
|Advisor: ||El-Sohemy, Ahmed|
|Department: ||Nutritional Sciences|
|Issue Date: ||15-Feb-2011|
|Abstract: ||Background: There are a number of biological pathways that affect our ingestive behaviours, including energy homeostasis, food reward, and taste. Given that carbohydrates such as sugars, provide energy and a sweet taste, examining candidate genes in each pathway may help explain differences in carbohydrate consumption behaviours.
Objective: To determine whether variations in genes encoding a glucose transporter (GLUT2), a dopamine receptor (DRD2), and sweet taste receptor (TAS1R2) are associated with differences in sugar consumption in two distinct populations.
Methods: Population 1 included diabetes-free young adults where dietary intake was assessed using a one month 196-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Population 2 consisted of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Dietary intake was assessed using 3-day food records administered 2 weeks apart; food record 1 (FR1) and 2 (FR2). Subjects were genotyped for the Thr110Ile variation in GLUT2 (n1=587; n2=100), the C957T variation in DRD2 (n1=313; n2=100), and the Ser9Cys and Ile191Val variations in TAS1R2 (n1=1037; n2=100) using real-time PCR.
Results: In comparison to individuals homozygous for the GLUT2 Thr allele, consumption of sugars was higher among Ile carriers in population 1 (133 ± 5 vs 118 ± 3 g/d, p=0.006) and population 2 on two separate food records (FR1: 112 ± 9 vs 87 ± 5 g/d, p=0.02; FR2: 105 ± 8 vs 78 ± 4 g/d, p=0.002). For the C957T variation in population 1, we detected a significant DRD2xSex interaction with the consumption of sucrose decreasing with each T allele among men (p=0.03) and a heterosis mode of inheritance among women where heterozygotes consumed the most (p=0.01). For TAS1R2, we detected a significant TAS1R2xBMI interaction and among overweight individuals, carriers of the Val allele consumed less sugars than those with the Ile/Ile genotype (103 ± 6 vs122 ± 6 g/d, p=0.01). In population 2, carriers of the Val allele consumed less sugars than individuals with the Ile/Ile genotype (83 ± 6 vs 99 ± 6 g/d, p=0.04) on FR2.
Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that genetic variation in GLUT2, DRD2 and TAS1R2 affect habitual sugar consumption and suggest that selection of dietary sugars can be influenced by different biological pathways.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
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