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|Title: ||The Consequences of Collagen Degradation on Bone Mechanical Properties|
|Authors: ||Wynnyckyj, Chrystia|
|Advisor: ||Grynpas, Marc D.|
|Department: ||Materials Science and Engineering|
|Keywords: ||collagen degradation|
bone mechanical properties
|Issue Date: ||23-Feb-2011|
|Abstract: ||The mechanisms underlying the effect of alterations in Type I collagen on bone mechanical properties are not well defined. Clinical tools for evaluating fracture risk, such as dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) focus on bone mineral and cannot detect changes in the collagen matrix. The mechanical response tissue analyzer (MRTA) is a potential tool for evaluating fracture risk. Thus, the focus of this work was to investigate the effects of collagen degradation on bone mechanical properties and examine whether clinical tools can detect these changes.
Female and male emu tibiae were endocortically treated with 1 M potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution for 1-14 days and then either mechanically tested in three-point bending, fatigued to failure or fatigued to induce stiffness loss. Computed Tomography scans, DXA, QUS, MRTA and three-point bend testing in the elastic region were performed on emu tibiae before and after either KOH treatment or fatigue to induce stiffness loss. Fracture surfaces were examined to determine failure mechanisms. Bone mineral and bone collagen were characterized using appropriate techniques. Bone mineral-collagen interface was investigated using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM).
Endocortical KOH treatment does not affect bone mineral however, it causes in situ collagen degradation, rather than removal and may be weakening the mineral-collagen interface. These changes result in significantly compromised mechanical properties. Emu tibiae show significant decreases in failure stress and increased failure strain and toughness, with increasing KOH treatment time. The significant increase in toughness of KOH treated bones is due to structural alterations that enhance the ability of the microstructure to dissipate energy during the failure process, thereby slowing crack propagation, as shown by fracture surface analysis. KOH treated samples exhibit a lower fatigue resistance compared to untreated samples at high stresses only for both sexes. Partial fatigue testing results in similar decreases in modulus for all groups and sexes. The MRTA detected these changes whereas DXA and QUS did not. MRTA detects changes in bone mechanical properties induced by changes in collagen quality and fatigue and could be a more effective tool for predicting fracture risk.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
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