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|Title: ||Vasculoprotective Effects of Insulin and Resveratrol In Vivo|
|Authors: ||Breen, Danna|
|Advisor: ||Giacca, Adria|
|Issue Date: ||23-Feb-2011|
|Abstract: ||Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and type 2 diabetes and obesity-associated metabolic syndrome, both characterized by insulin resistance, are potent risk factors. These conditions also increase the risk for restenosis after revascularization procedures used for treatment of atherosclerosis. Studies have shown that insulin and resveratrol (RSV), a red wine polyphenol, decrease neointimal growth after vessel injury in models of restenosis, demonstrating a protective effect on the vasculature. However, oral glucose and sucrose were used in insulin studies to maintain normoglycemia, and their effect on neointimal formation was not assessed. Several studies have shown that nitric oxide (NO) production is stimulated by insulin and RSV, and since NO can decrease neointimal growth, the objective of this thesis was to address the mechanism of action of insulin or RSV to protect against restenosis, and determine whether NO production mediates these effects. To examine this, we treated rats with insulin or RSV and performed arterial balloon injury.
In Study 1, insulin reduced neointimal area after injury in rats receiving oral glucose but not oral sucrose. Oral glucose alone had no effect on neointimal formation or insulin sensitivity whereas oral sucrose increased neointimal growth and induced insulin resistance. In Study 2, insulin decreased neointimal area and cell migration, and increased re-endothelialization. These effects were abolished by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition. In addition, insulin increased eNOS protein expression in the vessel. In Study 3, RSV reduced neointimal growth, cell proliferation, and migration after injury, without affecting re-endothelialization. Most of these effects were abolished by NOS inhibition, except for the decrease in cell migration. Insulin sensitivity and systolic blood pressure were not affected by RSV.
Together, the results demonstrate that insulin, independent of glycemic effects, and RSV have a protective effect on the vessel against restenosis, which is mediated by NO. Since both insulin and RSV decrease neointimal formation without negatively impacting re-endothelialization, insulin or RSV treatment could provide some advantage over anti-mitogenic agents currently used in drug-eluting stents, which delay re-endothelialization. These studies suggest that insulin or RSV may have clinical potential in the prevention of restenosis after angioplasty.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
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