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|Title: ||Modular Approach to Adipose Tissue Engineering|
|Authors: ||Butler, Mark James|
|Advisor: ||Sefton, Michael|
Woodhouse, Kimberly A.
|Department: ||Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry|
|Keywords: ||Adipose Tissue Engineering|
Adipose-derived Stem Cells
|Issue Date: ||29-Aug-2011|
|Abstract: ||Despite the increasing clinical demand in reconstructive, cosmetic and correctional surgery there remains no optimal strategy for the regeneration or replacement of adipose tissue. Previous approaches to adipose tissue engineering have failed to create an adipose tissue depot that maintains implant volume in vivo long-term (>3 months). This is due to inadequate mechanical properties of the biomaterial and insufficient vascularization upon implantation. Modular tissue engineering is a means to produce large volume functional tissues from small sub-mm sized tissues with an intrinsic vascularization. We first explored the potential of a semi-synthetic collagen/poloxamine hydrogel with improved mechanical properties to be used as the module biomaterial. We found this biomaterial to not be suitable for adipose tissue engineering because it did not support embedded adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) viability, differentiation and human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC) attachment. ASC-embedded collagen gel modules coated with HMEC were then implanted subcutaneously in SCID mice to study its revascularization potential. ASC cotransplantation was shown to drive HMEC vascularization in vivo: HMEC were seen to detach from the surface of the modules to form vessels containing erythrocytes as early as day 3; vessels decreased in number but increased in size over 14 days; and persisted for up to 3 months. Early vascularization promoted fat development. Only in the case of ASC-HMEC cotransplantation was progressive fat accumulation observed in the module implants. Although implant volume was not maintained, likely due rapid collagen degradation, the key result here is that ASC-HMEC cotransplantation in the modular approach was successful in creating vascularized adipose tissue in vivo that persisted for 3 months. The modular system was then studied in vitro to further understand ASC-EC interaction. Coculture with ASC was shown to promote an angiogenic phenotype (e.g. sprouting, migration) from HUVEC on modules. RT-PCR analysis revealed that VEGF, PAI-1 and TNFα was involved in ASC-EC paracrine signalling. In summary, ASC-HMEC cotransplantation in modules was effective in rapidly forming a vascular network that supported fat development. Future work should focus on further elucidating ASC-EC interactions and developing a suitable biomaterial to improve adipose tissue development and volume maintenance of engineered constructs.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
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