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|Title: ||Fatigue Behavior in Hygrothermally Degraded toughened epoxy Adhesives|
|Authors: ||Datla, Naresh Varma|
|Advisor: ||Spelt, Jan K.|
|Department: ||Mechanical and Industrial Engineering|
|Issue Date: ||30-Aug-2011|
|Abstract: ||A method to measure the mixed-mode fatigue behavior of environmentally degraded adhesive joints was developed. Firstly, the absorption and desorption of water in two different rubber-toughened epoxy adhesives was measured gravimetrically. The water absorption in both adhesives showed anomalous behavior that was fitted to a new “sequential dual Fickian” (SDF) model. The water desorption in both adhesives was modelled accurately using Fick’s law, and there was a significant difference in the amount of retained water after drying in the two adhesives.
The effects of long-term aging were studied using open-faced specimens made with two different rubber-toughened epoxy adhesives. The contrasting results illustrated the effects of environmental degradation on the matrix and toughener. Furthermore, the differences in the degradation behavior of both adhesives, combined with gravimetric and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) results, were used to illustrate the role of retained water in degrading the toughening mechanisms. The measured fatigue results invalidated the environmental index (EI) hypothesis for fatigue behavior, at least for the relatively short aging times studied here. Compared with aging under constant humidity, the fatigue performance of joints was found to be superior after aging in a cyclic salt-spray environment due to the lower water concentrations in the adhesive.
The effects of test environment humidity and temperature on the fatigue behavior were also studied using closed, un-aged specimens. Both individual and combined effects of temperature and humidity on fatigue behavior were studied. In elevated temperature and humidity environment, joint performance at higher crack growth rates was degraded solely due to the effect of the increased temperature, whereas fatigue performance at low crack growth rates degraded predominantly because of elevated moisture.
Finally, to generalise the techniques developed to automotive aluminum sheets, a reinforced specimen was developed that avoids yielding of thin aluminum sheet adherends while loading. Fatigue testing with these reinforced specimens revealed that the fatigue behavior was sensitive to the loading phase angle and the orientation of rolling lines on the sheet. These reinforced specimens were also used to study the effects of long-term aging and the effects of test environment.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
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