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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/29788

Title: Adsorption of Alkaline Copper Quat Components in Wood-mechanisms and Influencing Factors
Authors: Lee, Myung Jae
Advisor: Cooper, Paul
Department: Forestry
Keywords: ACQ
Alkaline copper quat
cation exchange capacity
copper precipitation
hydrophobic interaction
ion exchange
ligand exchange
quaternary ammonium compound
wood preservatives
Issue Date: 31-Aug-2011
Abstract: Mechanisms of adsorption of alkaline copper quat (ACQ) components in wood were investigated with emphasis on: copper chemisorption, copper physisorption, and quat adsorption. Various factors were investigated that could affect the adsorption of individual ACQ components in red pine wood. Copper chemisorption in wood was affected by ligand types coordinating with Cu and the stability of the Cu-ligand complexes in solution. For Cu-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) system, the prevailing active solvent species at the solution pH, [Cu(Mea)2-H]+ complexes with wood acid sites and loses one Mea molecule through a ligand exchange reaction. The amount of adsorbed Cu was closely related to the cation exchange capacity of wood. An increase in Mea/Cu ratio increased the proportion of the uncharged Cu-Mea complex and resulted in decreased Cu chemisorption in wood. Copper precipitation is also an important Cu fixation mechanisms of Cu-amine treated wood. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that in vitro precipitated Cu was a mixture of copper carbonates (azurite and malachite) and possibly Cu2O. Higher concentration Cu-amine solutions retarded the Cu precipitation to a lower pH because of higher free amine in the preservative-wood system. The changes in zeta potential of wood in relationship to the quaternary ammonium (alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride: ADBAC) adsorption isotherm showed two different adsorption mechanisms for quat in wood: ion exchange reaction at low concentration and additional aggregation form of adsorption by hydrophobic interaction at high concentration. Because of the aggregation effect, when wood was treated with ACQ, high amounts of ADBAC were concentrated near the surface creating a steep gradient with depth. This aggregated ADBAC was easily leached out while the ion exchanged ADBAC had high leaching resistance. Free Mea and Cu of ACQ components appeared to compete with ADBAC for the same bonding sites in wood.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/29788
Appears in Collections:Doctoral

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