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T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries >
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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/29842

Title: Characterization of CD109
Authors: Prosper, Joseph
Advisor: Schuh, Andre
Department: Medical Biophysics
Keywords: molecular biology
haematology
cell biology
platelets
phylogenetics
CD109
macroglobulin
Issue Date: 31-Aug-2011
Abstract: CD109 is a 170kD glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein expressed on subsets of fetal and adult CD34+ haematopoietic stem cells, endothelial cells, activated T cells, and activated platelets. Cloning of the CD109 cDNA by our group identified the molecule as a novel member of the alpha2M/C3/C4/C5 family of thioester containing proteins. Curiously, CD109 bears features of both the alpha2M and complement branches of the gene family. Additionally CD109 carries the antigenic determinant of the Gov alloantigen system, which has been implicated in a subset of immune mediated platelet destruction syndromes. In this thesis, the status of CD109 in the evolution and phylogeny of the A2M family has been clarified. First, I elucidated the evolutionary relationships of CD109, and of the other eight human A2M/C3/C4/C5 proteins, using sequence analysis and a detailed comparison of the organization of the corresponding loci. Extension of this analysis to compare CD109 to related sequences extending back to placazoans, defined CD109 as a member of a distinct and archaic branch of the A2M phylogenetic tree. Second, in conjunction with collaborators, the molecular basis of the Gov alloantigen system was identified as an allele specific A2108C; Y703S polymorphism. Utilizing cDNA and genomic sequence we then developed methods to accurately and precisely genotype the Gov system. Finally, the expression kinetics of platelet CD109 was elucidated, in order to obtain basic information regarding its expression and subcellular localization, and to resolve discrepancies in reported platelet CD109 expression. Quantitative flow cytometry demonstrated that CD109 was expressed on the surface of activated platelets at very low levels in most healthy volunteers. In resting platelets, CD109 was localized to the OCS and intracellular storage granules. CD109 displayed differential agonist induced expression in comparison to GPIIb/IIIa epitope unmasking, and surface expression of CD62P and CD63. CD109 was rapidly expressed on the cell surface in response to low doses of both strong and weak agonists. This early expression is likely the result of CD109’s proximity to the plasma membrane in resting platelets. As such, CD109 is positioned to participate at early stages of primary haemostasis.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/29842
Appears in Collections:Doctoral

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