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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/29966

Title: Cellular and Molecular Architecture of the Human Hematopoietic Hierarchy
Authors: Doulatov, Sergei
Advisor: Dick, John E.
Department: Molecular and Medical Genetics
Keywords: hematopoietic
stem cell
cord blood
Issue Date: 15-Sep-2011
Abstract: The blood system is organized as a developmental hierarchy in which rare hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generate large numbers of immature progenitors and differentiated mature blood cells. In this process, at least ten distict lineages are specified from multipotent stem cells, however the cellular and molecular organization of the hematopoietic hierarchy is a topic of intense investigation. While much has been learned from mouse models, there is also an appreciation for species-specific differences and the need for human studies. Blood lineages have been traditionally grouped into myeloid and lymphoid branches, and the long-standing dogma has been that the separation between these branches is the earliest event in fate specification. However, recent murine studies indicate that the progeny of initial specification retain the more ancestral myeloid potential. By contrast, much less is known about the progenitor hierarchy in human hematopoiesis. To dissect human hematopoiesis, we developed a novel sorting scheme to isolate human stem and progenitor cells from neonatal cord blood and adult bone marrow. As few as one in five single sorted HSCs efficiently repopulated immunodeficient mice enabling interrogation of homogeneous human stem cells. By analyzing the developmental potential of sorted progenitors at a single-cell level we showed that earliest human lymphoid progenitors (termed LMPs) possess myelo-monocytic potential. In addition to B-, T-, and natural killer cells, LMPs gave rise to dendritic cells and macrophages indicating that these closely related myeloid lineages also remain entangled in lymphoid development. These studies provide systematic insight into the organization of the human hematopoietic hierarchy, which provides the basis for detailed genetic analysis of molecular regulation in defined cell populations. In a pilot study, we investigated the role of a zinc finger transcription factor (ZNF145), PLZF, in myeloid development. We found that PLZF restrained proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitors and maintained the progenitor pool. Induction of ERK1/2 by myeloid cytokines, reflective of a stress response, leads to nuclear export and inactivation of PLZF, which augments mature cell production. Thus, negative regulators of differentiation can serve to maintain developmental systems in a primed state, so that their inactivation by extrinsic signals can induce proliferation and differentiation to rapidly satisfy increased demand for mature cells. Taken together, these studies advance our understanding of the cellular and molecular architecture of human hematopoiesis.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/29966
Appears in Collections:Doctoral

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