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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/31865

Title: Investigting the Cytoprotective Mechanisms of VIitamins B6 and B1 against Endogenous Toxin-induced Oxidative Stress
Authors: Mehta, Rhea
Advisor: O'Brien, Peter J.
Department: Pharmaceutical Sciences
Keywords: Isolated rat hepatocytes
Oxidative stress
B vitamins
Issue Date: 10-Jan-2012
Abstract: Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that many chronic health disorders in the developed world are associated with endogenous toxins formed from the Western diet. The Western diet, which encompasses calorie dense foods, processed foods and increased quantities of red meat, can cause intracellular oxidative stress through increased formation of reactive oxygen species(ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). A number of micronutrients have been investigated for their protective capacity in in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress. This thesis investigated the cytotoxic targets of Fenton-mediated ROS and RCS and the subsequent protective mechanisms of vitamins B1 (thiamin) or B6 (pyridoxal, pyridoxamine or pyridoxine) in an isolated rat hepatocyte model. The approach was to use an “accelerated cytotoxicity mechanism screening” technique (ACMS) to develop an in vitro cell system that mimicked in vivo tissue cytotoxicity. Using this technique, we investigated the protective mechanisms of vitamins B1 and/or B6 against the cytotoxic effects of two endogenous toxins associated with the Western diet: 1) RCS, as exemplified by glyoxal, a glucose/fructose autoxidation product and 2) biological ROS induced by exogenous iron. Firstly, we developed an understanding of the sequence of events contributing to glyoxal-induced oxidative stress, with a focus on protein carbonylation. Next, we determined the mechanisms by which carbonyl scavenging drugs (vitamin B6 included) protected against the intracellular targets of glyoxal-induced toxicity. Our results suggested that the agents used were cytoprotective by multiple mechanisms and glyoxal trapping was only observed when the agents were administered at concentrations equal to glyoxal. We also evaluated the protective capacity of vitamins B1 and B6 against iron-catalyzed cytotoxicity and found that hepatocytes could be rescued from protein and DNA damage when vitamins B1 or B6 were added up to one hour after treatment with iron. The vitamins also varied in their primary mechanisms of protection. Our improved understanding of Western diet-derived endogenous toxins enabled us to identify and prioritize the specific inhibitory mechanisms of vitamins B1 or B6. The ability to delay, inhibit or reverse toxicity using multi-functional B1 or B6 vitamins could prove useful as therapy to minimize oxidative stress in diet-induced chronic conditions.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/31865
Appears in Collections:Doctoral

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