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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/31961

Title: A Double-blinded Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Distant Reiki on Pain after Non-emergency Caesarean Section and the Effect of CYP2D6 Variation on Codeine Analgesia
Authors: vanderVaart, Sondra
Advisor: Koren, Gideon
Department: Pharmaceutical Sciences
Keywords: CAM
Issue Date: 11-Jan-2012
Abstract: Codeine-containing medication is commonly used for pain after c-section. In most people, 10% of codeine is biotransformed into morphine by the Cytochrome P450 enzyme 2D6 (CYP2D6). Individuals who convert up to 50 fold more codeine into morphine, ultrarapid metaboizers, are at a greater risk for adverse effects. Conversely poor metabolizers, individuals who convert almost no codeine into morphine, are at risk for untreated pain. The pharmacodynamic relationship between codeine-analgesia and CYP2D6 genotype is studied for possible development of a titration model. To minimize these treatment risks, alternatives to opioids are sought. Reiki, an ancient Japanese form of healing used to treat pain and depression, has not been systematically reviewed for its efficacy in treating pain. My systematic review of Reiki literature (n=12) showed that while most trials yielded a positive result on primary outcomes, all existing Reiki studies lacked in one of the three key areas of proper patient allocation concealment, randomization or blinding which can lead to the introduction of bias. We designed a randomized controlled trial using distant Reiki for postpartum pain, taking careful steps to control for each of those three key areas. Eighty pregnant women scheduled for an elective c-section where recruited and randomly allocated to one of the two arms (n=40 Reiki and n=40 control). Women were monitored in hospital for up to three days. Visual Analogue Scores (VAS) for pain were recorded 4 times per day; and all pain medication, adverse effects and milestone recovery rates after c-section were recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine CYP2D6 genotype. We determined that distant Reiki did not reduce women’s pain; neither the measured pain nor the cumulative dose of pain medication differed between groups. Moreover, rates of recovery after c-section were also not different between the two groups. This led to the conclusion that distant Reiki was not suitable as a primary method of controlling pain after c-section. Our second study (n=45) looked for correlation between CYP2D6 genotype and effectiveness of codeine analgesia. Only a small sample of the women were genetic extremes (n=2 poor metabolizers and n=3 ultrarapid metabolizers), while most were, as expected, extensive or intermediate metabolizers. An individual examination of each of these cases provided valuable insight into patients where CYP2D6 polymorphism is clinically relevant. Two of the three ultrarapid metabolizers stopped opioid analgesia due to adverse effects, while both poor metabolizers complained that the codeine-containing medication was not providing analgesia (i.e. ineffective pain treatment). Healthcare providers need to be aware of patient response to pharmacotherapy and use this information to individualize postpartum opioid analgesia.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/31961
Appears in Collections:Doctoral

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