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|Title: ||Slow Flow of Viscoelastic Fluids Through Fibrous Porous Media|
|Authors: ||Yip, Ronnie|
|Advisor: ||James, David F.|
Currie, Iain G.
|Department: ||Mechanical and Industrial Engineering|
|Keywords: ||mechanical engineering|
particle image velocimetry
|Issue Date: ||12-Jan-2012|
|Abstract: ||This thesis reports on an experimental study of slow viscoelastic flow through models of fibrous porous media. The models were square arrays of parallel cylinders, with solid volume fractions or ‘solidities’ of 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10%. An initial study using a Newtonian fluid provided a baseline for comparison with results for two Boger fluids, so that the effects of fluid elasticity could be determined. Boger fluids are elastic fluids that have near constant viscosities and can be used in experiments without having to account for shear-thinning effects. The experimental approach involved measurements of pressure loss through the three arrays and interior velocity measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV).
For the Newtonian flows, pressure loss measurements were in good agreement with the analytical predictions of Sangani and Acrivos (1982). PIV measurements showed velocity profiles which were symmetrical and independent of flow rate.
Pressure loss measurements for the Boger fluid flows revealed that the onset of elastic effects occurred at a Deborah number of approximately 0.5, for both fluids and the three arrays. Flow resistance data collapsed for the two Boger fluids, and increased with solidity. For all three models, the flow resistance increased monotonically with Deborah number, reaching values up to four times the Newtonian resistance for the 10% model.
PIV measurements showed that the transverse velocity profiles for the Newtonian and Boger fluids were the same at Deborah numbers below the elastic onset. Above onset, the profiles became skewed. The skewness, like the flow resistance, was observed to increase with both Deborah number and solidity.
In the wake regions between cylinders in a column, periodic flow structures formed in the spanwise direction. The structures were staggered from column to column, consistent with the skewing. As either Deborah number or solidity increased, the flow structures became increasingly three-dimensional, and the stagger became more symmetric.
An analysis of fluid stresses reveals that the elastic flow resistance is attributed to additional normal stresses caused by shearing, and not by extension.|
|Appears in Collections:||Doctoral|
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