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T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries >
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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32332

Title: Danger Signal in a Rat Model of Nevirapine-induced Skin Rash
Authors: Zhang, Xiaochu
Advisor: Uetrecht, Jack
Department: Pharmaceutical Sciences
Keywords: pharmaceutical science, toxicology
nevirapine, reactive metabolites, skin rash, immune response, danger signals
Issue Date: 26-Mar-2012
Abstract: Nevirapine (NVP) can cause serious skin rashes and hepatotoxicity. It also causes an immune-mediated skin rash in rats but not hepatotoxicity. There is strong evidence that the rash is due to 12-hydroxynevirapine (12-OH-NVP), which is further metabolized to a reactive benzylic sulfate in the skin. This could both act as a hapten and induce a danger signal. In contrast, most of the covalent binding in the liver appears to involve oxidation of the methyl group leading to a reactive quinone methide. In this study we examined the effects of NVP and 12-OH-NVP on gene expression in the liver and skin. Both NVP and 12-OH-NVP induced changes in the liver, but the list of genes was different, presumably reflecting different bioactivation pathways. In contrast, many more genes were up-regulated in the skin by 12-OH-NVP than by NVP, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the 12-hydroxylation pathway is involved in causing the rash. Some genes up-regulated by 12-OH-NVP were Trim63, S100a7a, and IL22ra2, etc. Up-regulation of genes such as S100a7a, which is considered a danger signal, supports the danger hypothesis. Up-regulation of genes such as the ubiquitin ligase and Trim63 are consistent with protein-adduct formation. Up-regulation of IL-22ra2 gene suggests an immune response. These results provide important clues to how NVP causes induction of an immune response, in some cases leading to an idiosyncratic drug reaction.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32332
Appears in Collections:Doctoral

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