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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32647

Title: GATA4 Represses Formation of Glioblastoma Multiforme
Authors: Agnihotri, Sameer
Advisor: Guha, Abhijit
Department: Medical Biophysics
Keywords: GATA4
Glioblastoma Multiforme
Issue Date: 20-Aug-2012
Abstract: The GATA transcription factors consist of six family members that bind the consensus DNA binding element W-GATA-R, and are poorly characterized in the central nervous system (CNS). In this thesis we identify GATA4 to be expressed in the neurons and glia of normal murine and human embryonic and adult CNS with significant loss in Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM). GBM is the most common and lethal primary brain tumour and exhibits multiple molecular aberrations. Here we report that loss of the transcription factor GATA4, a negative regulator of normal astrocyte proliferation, is a driver in glioma formation and fulfills the hallmarks of a tumour suppressor gene. Although GATA4 was expressed in normal brain, loss of GATA4 was observed in GBM operative samples and was a negative survival prognostic marker. GATA4 loss occurred through promoter hypermethylation or novel somatic mutations. Loss of GATA4 in normal human astrocytes promoted high-grade astrocytoma formation, in cooperation with other relevant genetic alterations such as activated Ras or loss of TP53. Loss of GATA4 with activated Ras in normal astrocytes promoted a progenitor like phenotype, formation of neurospheres and the ability to differentiate into astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes. Re-expression of GATA4 in human GBM cell lines, primary cultures and brain tumour initiating cells suppressed tumour growth in vitro and in vivo through direct activation of the cell cycle inhibitor P21CIP1, independent of TP53. Re-expression of GATA4 also conferred sensitivity of GBM cells to temozolomide, a DNA alkylating agent currently used in GBM therapy. This sensitivity was independent of MGMT, the DNA repair enzyme often implicated in temozolomide resistance. Instead GATA4 reduced expression of APNG, a DNA repair enzyme poorly characterized in GBM mediated temozolomide resistance. Identification and validation of GATA4 as a tumour suppressor gene and its downstream targets in GBM may yield promising novel therapeutic strategies.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32647
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