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T-Space at The University of Toronto Libraries >
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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32738

Title: The Acute Regulation of Intestinal Chylomicron Secretion by Glucagon-like Peptides
Authors: Hsieh, Joanne
Advisor: Adeli, Khosrow
Department: Biochemistry
Keywords: apolipoprotein B
insulin resistance
postprandial dyslipidemia
Issue Date: 21-Aug-2012
Abstract: Postprandial overproduction of apolipoprotein B48 (apoB48)-containing lipoproteins has been observed in states of insulin resistance and is important to the sequelae of cardiovascular disease, but little is understood about factors that regulate their secretion. The glucagon-like peptides (GLPs) are released from ileal enteroendocrine L-cells following lipid ingestion. I hypothesized that the GLPs could acutely affect the production of apoB48-containing triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in the small intestine. Using the Syrian golden hamster, I first characterized the gross effects of the GLPs on TRL secretion in response to an oral fat load and then continued to dissect the mechanisms of these changes using primary intestinal cell cultures and a variety of knockout mouse models. An exogenous GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist was found to acutely inhibit chylomicron secretion in both hamsters and mouse models, and extending the bioactivity of endogenously-secreted GLP-1 with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor had suppressive effects in insulin-resistant fructose-fed hamsters. The insulinotropic and delayed gastric emptying functions do not completely account for the hypolipidemic effect of GLP-1R agonism, and the effect of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4 could be seen directly in the apoB48 secretion of primary enterocytes. In contrast, the sister peptide GLP-2 was a potent acute stimulator of chylomicron secretion in hamsters and mice. The hyperlipidemic effect of GLP-2 could be attributed to an increased rate of luminal FA uptake mediated by the posttranslational modification of the FA transporter CD36, and CD36-deficient mice were found to be refractory to the stimulatory effects of GLP-2. The activity of nitric oxide synthase was also found to be essential to the hyperlipidemic action of GLP-2. I identified a set of intercellular communications that could contribute in mediating the action of GLP-2, in which GLP-2 secreted from the enteroendocrine L-cell stimulates intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts to release vascular endothelial growth factor, which directly activated the enterocyte to secrete apoB48. In summary, this thesis demonstrates that two co-secreted postprandial hormones have considerable but completely opposite influences on chylomicron production. Changing the balance of the GLPs’ actions in vivo could provide a therapeutic strategy to combat postprandial dyslipidemia.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32738
Appears in Collections:Doctoral

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