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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32745

Title: Aerostructural Shape and Topology Optimization of Aircraft Wings
Authors: James, Kai A.
Advisor: Martins, Joaquim R. R. A.
Department: Aerospace Science and Engineering
Keywords: Multidisciplinary Design Optimization
Topology Optimization
Issue Date: 22-Aug-2012
Abstract: A series of novel algorithms for performing aerostructural shape and topology optimization are introduced and applied to the design of aircraft wings. An isoparametric level set method is developed for performing topology optimization of wings and other non-rectangular structures that must be modeled using a non-uniform, body-fitted mesh. The shape sensitivities are mapped to computational space using the transformation defined by the Jacobian of the isoparametric finite elements. The mapped sensitivities are then passed to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, which is solved on a uniform Cartesian grid. The method is derived for several objective functions including mass, compliance, and global von Mises stress. The results are compared with SIMP results for several two-dimensional benchmark problems. The method is also demonstrated on a three-dimensional wingbox structure subject to fixed loading. It is shown that the isoparametric level set method is competitive with the SIMP method in terms of the final objective value as well as computation time. In a separate problem, the SIMP formulation is used to optimize the structural topology of a wingbox as part of a larger MDO framework. Here, topology optimization is combined with aerodynamic shape optimization, using a monolithic MDO architecture that includes aerostructural coupling. The aerodynamic loads are modeled using a threedimensional panel method, and the structural analysis makes use of linear, isoparametric, hexahedral elements. The aerodynamic shape is parameterized via a set of twist variables representing the jig twist angle at equally spaced locations along the span of the wing. The sensitivities are determined analytically using a coupled adjoint method. The wing is optimized for minimum drag subject to a compliance constraint taken from a 2g maneuver condition. The results from the MDO algorithm are compared with those of a sequential optimization procedure in order to quantify the benefits of the MDO approach. While the sequentially optimized wing exhibits a nearly-elliptical lift distribution, the MDO design seeks to push a greater portion of the load toward the root, thus reducing the structural deflection, and allowing for a lighter structure. By exploiting this trade-off, the MDO design achieves a 42% lower drag than the sequential result.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/32745
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