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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/33910

Title: The Implications of Developmental and Evolutionary Relationships between Pancreatic Beta-cells and Neurons
Authors: Arntfield, Margot Elinor
Advisor: van der Kooy, Derek
Department: Molecular and Medical Genetics
Keywords: stem cells
neural crest
Issue Date: 6-Dec-2012
Abstract: A pancreatic stem cell could provide the tissue necessary for widespread β-cell transplantation therapy for diabetes. It is disputed whether pancreatic stem cells or β-cell replication are responsible for maintenance and regeneration of endocrine cells. Evidence presented here shows that pancreatic stem cells express insulin and produce multiple endocrine, exocrine and neural cells in vitro and in vivo. The human pancreas also contains stem cells that produce functional β-cells capable of reducing blood sugar levels in a diabetic mouse. Initial studies of pancreatic stem cells grown clonally in vitro indicated that they produced large numbers of neurons, suggesting they may be derived from the neural crest. Evidence shows that there are at least two distinct developmental origins for stem cells in the pancreas; one from the pancreatic lineage that produces endocrine and exocrine cells and one from the neural crest lineage that produces neurons and Schwann cells. Furthermore, pancreatic stem cells require the developmental transcription factor, Pax6, for endocrine cell formation suggesting they are using expected differentiation pathways. There is an interesting evolutionary connection between pancreatic β-cells and neurons which was applied to the derivation of pancreatic stem cells from human embryonic stem cells by using a clonal neural stem cell assay. These pancreatic stem cells express pancreatic and neural markers, self-renew and differentiate into insulin-expressing cells. The overexpression of SOX17 in these cells increases stem cell formation and self-renewal but inhibits differentiation. Overall I will show that there is a genuine stem cell in the adult mammalian pancreas capable of producing functional β-cells, that this stem cell is derived from the pancreatic developmental lineage but the pancreas also contains stem cells from the neural crest lineage, and that the neural stem cell assays that have identified these adult stem cells can be applied to the derivation of a pancreatic stem cell from hESCs.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/1807/33910
Appears in Collections:Doctoral

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