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|Title: ||The interactive effects of food and predators on reproduction and overwinter survival of arctic ground squirrels|
|Authors: ||Karels, Tim J.|
Byrom, Andrea E.
Krebs, Charles J.
|Keywords: ||overwinter survival|
sublethal effects of predators
|Issue Date: ||2000|
|Publisher: ||British Ecological Society|
|Citation: ||Journal of Animal Ecology (2000) 69, 235-247|
|Abstract: ||1. We examined the effects of food and predators on population limitation in the
arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii plesius Richardson) in the boreal forest
of the south-western Yukon. We focused on ground squirrel reproduction and
2. Squirrel populations were monitored by live-trapping and radio-telemetry from
1993 to the spring of 1996 on four control and four experimental areas (one preda-
tor exclosure treatment, two food addition treatments, and one predator exclosure
plus food addition treatment).
3. Predator exclusion increased body condition, percentage lactating, percentage
weaning litters, litter size, and doubled population density relative to controls, but
had no effect on juvenile growth rate, overwinter survival, or juvenile emergence
4. Food addition advanced juvenile emergence date and increased adult body con-
dition, percentage lactating, percentage weaning litters, litter size, population den-
sity relative to controls (4-7 fold), but had no effect on juvenile growth rate or
5. Predator exclusion combined with food addition increased adult body condition,
percentage lactating, percentage weaning litters, and population density relative to
6. We conclude that arctic ground squirrels in the boreal forest are limited by an
interaction between food and predation, acting primarily through changes in repro-
duction, and that their impact on density was multiplicative.|
|Appears in Collections:||Biology|
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