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Short poem

Edmund Spenser (1552-1599)

The Shepheardes Calender: October

OCTOBER: Ægloga Decima

              1Cuddie, for shame hold up thy heavye head,
              2And let us cast with what delight to chace,
              3And weary thys long lingring Phoebus race.
              4Whilome thou wont the shepheards laddes to leade,
              5In rymes, in ridles, and in bydding base:
              6Now they in thee, and thou in sleepe art dead.

              7Piers, I have pyped erst so long with payne,
              8That all mine Oten reedes bene rent and wore:
              9And my poore Muse hath spent her spared store,
            10Yet little good hath got, and much lesse gayne,
            11Such pleasaunce makes the Grashopper so poore,
            12And ligge so layd, when Winter doth her straine.

            13The dapper ditties, that I wont devise,
            14To feede youthes fancie, and the flocking fry,
            15Delighten much: what I the bett for thy?
            16They han the pleasure, I a sclender prise.
            17I beate the bush, the byrds to them doe flye:
            18What good thereof to Cuddie can arise?

            19Cuddie, the prayse is better, then the price,
            20The glory eke much greater then the gayne:
            21O what an honor is it, to restraine
            22The lust of lawlesse youth with good advice:
            23Or pricke them forth with pleasaunce of thy vaine,
            24Whereto thou list their trayned willes entice.

            25Soone as thou gynst to sette thy notes in frame,
            26O how the rurall routes to thee doe cleave:
            27Seemeth thou dost their soule of sence bereave,
            28All as the shepheard, that did fetch his dame
            29From Plutoes balefull bowre withouten leave:
            30His musicks might the hellish hound did tame.

            31So praysen babes the Peacoks spotted traine,
            32And wondren at bright Argus blazing eye:
            33But who rewards him ere the more for thy?
            34Or feedes him once the fuller by a graine?
            35Sike prayse is smoke, that sheddeth in the skye,
            36Sike words bene wynd, and wasten soone in vayne.

            37Abandon then the base and viler clowne,
            38Lyft up thy selfe out of the lowly dust:
            39And sing of bloody Mars, of wars, of giusts.
            40Turne thee to those, that weld the awful crowne,
            41To doubted Knights, whose woundlesse armour rusts,
            42And helmes unbruzed wexen dayly browne.

            43There may thy Muse display her fluttryng wing,
            44And stretch her selfe at large from East to West:
            45Whither thou list in fayre Elisa rest,
            46Or if thee please in bigger notes to sing,
            47Advaunce the worthy whome shee loveth best,
            48That first the white beare to the stake did bring.

            49And when the stubborne stroke of stronger stounds,
            50Has somewhat slackt the tenor of thy string:
            51Of love and lustihed tho mayst thou sing,
            52And carrol lowde, and leade the Myllers rownde,
            53All were Elisa one of thilke same ring.
            54So mought our Cuddies name to Heaven sownde.

            55Indeed the Romish Tityrus, I heare,
            56Through his Mec{oe}nas left his Oaten reede,
            57Whereon he earst had taught his flocks to feede,
            58And laboured lands to yield the timely eare,
            59And eft did sing of warres and deadly drede,
            60So as the Heavens did quake his verse to here.

            61But ah Mec{oe}nas is yclad in claye,
            62And great Augustus long ygoe is dead:
            63And all the worthies liggen wrapt in leade,
            64That matter made for Poets on to play:
            65For ever, who in derring doe were dreade,
            66The loftie verse of hem was loved aye.

            67But after vertue gan for age to stoupe,
            68And mighty manhode brought a bedde of ease:
            69The vaunting Poets found nought worth a pease,
            70To put in preace emong the learned troupe.
            71Tho gan the streames of flowing wittes to cease,
            72And sonnebright honour pend in shamefull coupe.

            73And if that any buddes of Poesie,
            74Yet of the old stocke gan to shoote agayne:
            75Or it mens follies mote be forst to fayne,
            76And rolle with rest in rymes of rybaudrye:
            77Or as it sprong, it wither must agayne:
            78Tom Piper makes us better melodie.

            79O pierlesse Poesye, where is then thy place?
            80If nor in Princes pallace thou doe sitt:
            81(And yet is Princes pallace the most fitt)
            82Ne brest of baser birth doth thee embrace.
            83Then make thee winges of thine aspyring wit,
            84And, whence thou camst, flye backe to heaven apace.

            85Ah Percy it is all to weake and wanne,
            86So high to sore, and make so large a flight:
            87Her peeced pyneons bene not so in plight,
            88For Colin fittes such famous flight to scanne:
            89He, were he not with love so ill bedight,
            90Would mount as high, and sing as soote as Swanne.

            91Ah fon, for love does teach him climbe so hie,
            92And lyftes him up out of the loathsome myre:
            93Such immortall mirrhor, as he doth admire,
            94Would rayse ones mynd above the starry skie.
            95And cause a caytive corage to aspire,
            96For lofty love doth loath a lowly eye.

            97All otherwise the state of Poet stands,
            98For lordly love is such a Tyranne fell:
            99That where he rules, all power he doth expell.
          100The vaunted verse a vacant head demaundes,
          101Ne wont with crabbed care the Muses dwell.
          102Unwisely weaves, that takes two webbes in hand.

          103Who ever casts to compasse weightye prise,
          104And thinks to throwe out thondring words of threate:
          105Let powre in lavish cups and thriftie bitts of meate,
          106For Bacchus fruite is frend to Phoebus wise.
          107And when with Wine the braine begins to sweate,
          108The nombers flowe as fast as spring doth ryse.

          109Thou kenst not Percie howe the ryme should rage.
          110O if my temples were distaind with wine,
          111And girt in girlonds of wild Yvie twine,
          112How I could reare the Muse on stately stage,
          113And teache her tread aloft in buskin fine,
          114With queint Bellona in her equipage.

          115But ah my corage cooles ere it be warme,
          116For thy, content us in thys humble shade:
          117Where no such troublous tydes han us assayde,
          118Here we our slender pipes may safely charme.

          119And when my Gates shall han their bellies layd:
          120Cuddie shall have a Kidde to store his farme.

          121Agitante calescimus illo


1] "In Cuddie is set out the perfecte paterne of a Poete, whiche finding no maintenaunce of his state and studies, complayneth of the contempte of Poetrie, and the causes thereof'' (E.K.).
Pierce. This speaker, whose name comes from Piers Plowman, appears in "May'' as a Protestant pastor attacking ecclesiastical abuses.
Cuddie. ''I doubte whether by Cuddie be specified the authour selfe, or some other" (E.K.).

2] cast: plan.

5] bydding base: the game of prisoner's base.

11-12] a reference to the fable of the ant and the grasshopper.

12] ligge so layd: lie so "faynt and unlustye" (E.K.).

15] what I the bett for thy: what gain have I for that?

23] vaine: poetic talent.

24] trayned: allured.

28-30] Orpheus, whose playing on the lyre held wild beasts spellbound, rescued his wife Eurydice from Hades, but lost her when he looked back as he had been warned by Persephone not to do. The hellish hound is Cerberus, guardian of hell-gates. The Orphic lyre is a conventional symbol of poetic power.

32] Argus: the herdsman set by Juno to watch over Io, the beloved of Jupiter, whom the jealous Juno had turned into a heifer; he had eyes all over his body. When Mercury killed him, Juno placed his eyes in the peacock's tail.

39] giusts: jousts, tournaments.

40] weld: bear.

41] doubted: redoubted.

47-48] The reference is to Queen Elizabeth's favourite, the Earl of Leicester, whose coat of arms bore the heraldic device of the Earls of Warwick, a bear and "ragged staff."

49] stounds: blows.

50] The metaphor is from the strings of the lyre, which, strongly plucked, would become slacker in tension and produce notes of a lower pitch.

51] lustihed: pleasure.

52] the Myllers rownde: "a kind of daunce" (E.K.).

55-62] The Romish Tityrus is Virgil, who was favoured by the emperor Augustus Caesar and whose patron was Maecenas. Virgil's progress from the pastoral Eclogues (his Oaten reede) through the Georgics, or poems of Agriculture (1aboured lands) to the epic Æneid (treating of warres) was thought of as the perfect pattern of a poet's development.

63] the Worthies: the Nine Worthies, Joshua, David, Judas Maccabeus, Hector, Alexander, Julius Caesar, Arthur, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon.
liggen: lie.

65] who in derring doe were dreade: who in chivalric deeds inspired awe.

70] To put in preace emong: to compare with.

75] Or: either.
mote be forst to fayne: might be forced to imitate; the poet's art is a "feigning" (Sidney).

76] rybaudrye: ribaldry.

78] Tom Piper: the bagpiper who accompanied Morris-dancers, hence a rude and vulgar poet.

87] peeced pyneons: "unperfect skil, spoken with humble modestie" (E.K.).
in plight: in condition.

88] The line means: For Colin to attempt such great things in poetry.

89] ill bedight: stricken (see "Aprill,'' lines 11-12).

93] immortal mirrhor: heavenly beauty.

95] caytive corage: "a base and abject minde" (E.K.).

98] fell: fearful.

100] vacant: free.

103] prise: enterprise.

106] Wine is an aid to poetic inspiration.

110-11] "He seemeth here to be ravished with a Poeticall furie" (E.K.). The ivy was sacred to Bacchus.

112-14] He would be able to write tragedy. The buskin was the high boot (cothurnus) worn by the actors in Attic tragedy. Bellona was the Roman goddess of war, here queint (strange and beautiful).

116] For thy: therefore.

117] assayde: assailed.

118] charme: "temper and order" (E.K.).

119] Gates: goats (Northern dialect).

121] Cuddies Embleme. The whole verse, from Ovid, Fasti, VI, 5, is Est deus in nobis, agitante calescimus illo: "There is a deity in us, and by that power we are inspired." E.K. notes: "Hereby is meant, as also in the whole course of this 'glogue, that Poetry is a divine instinct and unnatural rage passing the reache of comen reason."

Online text copyright © 2003, Ian Lancashire for the Department of English, University of Toronto.
Published by the Web Development Group, Information Technology Services, University of Toronto Libraries.

Original text: [Edmund Spenser] Immerito, The shepheardes calender conteyning twelue æglogues proportionable to the twelue monethes (H. Singleton, 1579). STC 23089. Facs. edn.: Scolar Press, 1968. PR 2359 A1 1579A ROBA.
First publication date: 1579
RPO poem editor: Millar MacLure
RP edition: 3RP 1.38.
Recent editing: 4:2002/5/23

Rhyme: abbaba

Other poems by Edmund Spenser